Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
UNIFICATION OF ITALY COUNT CAVOUR BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
Contents Cavour's Realpolitik Second Italian Independence War (1859)
Cavour's Realpolitik .Knew Italy needed foreign help Crimean War (1853-56): Italy had no stake. Cavour participated to win French gratitude. Used the the peace conference to give international publicity to the cause of Italian unification. A significant diplomatic victory was scored by tiny Piedmont that, although not being yet considered a "great" European power, was nevertheless granted a seat at the peace conference at Paris by the French Emperor Napoleon IlI. was determined to end revolutionary activity in Italy France promised Piedmont help secretly against Austria
-Second ltalian Independence War (1859) -Cavour provoked war with Vienna Defeated Austria at Battle of Magenta with French help -Lombardy to Sardinia (Unification step #1) News of the evacuation of Lombardy by Austrians caused popular revolt in central duchies and Parma, Modena and Tuscany. Provincial governments set up here. -In 1860, these states were annexed by Sardinia with French and British help (Unification step #2) -1860: Expedition of the Thousand campaign undertaken by Giuseppe Garibaldi
-overthrew the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) and permitted the union of southern Italy and Sicily with the north. (Unification step #3) -Garibaldi then started marching to Rome. -Cavour declared: Italy must be saved from foreigners (i.e. French intervention), evil principle (Republicanism of Garibaldi) and madman (Garibaldi) -Garibaldi agreed to hold a plebiscite in the south, which resulted in an overwhelming victory for annexation under Piedmont Now only Rome (held by Pope), Venetia (held by Austrian) and Savoy held by France) remained to be added for complete unification of Italy.
ltalian Parliament February 1861, Victor Emmanuel assembled the deputies of the first ltalian Parliament in Turin. -On 17 March 1861, the Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel King of Italy -On 27 March 1861 Rome was declared Capital (but it was under a French garrison) -3 months later, Cavour died
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