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UNIFICATION OF GERMANY EMERGENCE OF GERMAN NATIONALISM BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
-Before 1806: German speaking Central Europe included more than 300 political entities, most of which were part of the Holy Roman Empire or the extensive Habsburg hereditary dominions Small territories to large kingdoms of Bavaria and Prussia
Napoleanic system: German Mediatisation (territorial restructuring) of 1803: transferred large portions of the Holy Roman Empire to the dynastic states and secularized ecclesiastical territories 1806: Treaty of Pressburg dissolved the Holy Roman Empire 1806: Treaty of Pressburg dissolved the Rise of Nationalism: German nationalism thrived under the French Empire The German states were reorganised into 39 states, which advanced the cause of German nationality. They had a common language
Sense of common cause to remove the French Napoleans invasion of Russia included nearly 125000 troops from German ands Napoleans Continental System nearly ruined the Central European economy 1813 Batle of Leipzig ended Fench power east of the Rhine
-German dualism after Congress of Vienna German Confederation set up (18151866) -Headed by Austria -Included an enlarged Prussia and 38 other states -Federal Diet called Bundestag, (an assembly of appointed leaders) that met in the city of Frankfurt. The emperors of Austria became the titular presidents of this parliament and Prussia became Vice President. So, Austrian-Prussian dualism got established. This Diet had two defects:
(a) Its members were the representatives of the German princes, not of the people (b) It had no machinery to enforce its decision. Problematically, the built-in Austrian dominance failed to take into account Prussia's 18th century emergence in Imperial politics. Ever since the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg had made himself King in Prussia at the beginning of that century, their domains had steadily increased through war and inheritance.
Prussia's consolidated strength became especially apparent during the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War under Frederick the Great.
-Carlsbad Decrees (1819): a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundestag Desire of Austrian foreign minister Metternich To persuade governments to combine for the suppression of liberal and nationalistic tendencies Censorshop was imposed -Burschenschaften (nationalist student clubs) were disbanded -the faculties of schools and universities be placed under supervisory curators;
a central investigating commission, armed with inquisitional powers, was set up to ferret out conspiratorial organisations These efforts failed in the long run to stifle German nationalism
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