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Music in India Part 10
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Vinita Devi is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Vinita Devi
Hindu college Alumni, Teach for India fellowship, teaching UPSC. Environment, art and culture and Answer Writing sections.

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  1. Carnatic music is one of the forms of Indian classical music It is confined to southern India, the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala while the classical music of the rest of the country is under the name of Hindustani. The main emphasis in the Carnatic music is on the vocals. The music is created in the traditional octave form and the music is kriti based and focuses more on the saahithya or the lyric quality of the musical piece.


  2. . Tamil classic of the 2nd century "Silappadhikaram" contains a vivid . Tolkappiyam, Kalladam & contributions of Saivite &Vaishnavite saints of 7th & .South Indian Music, as known today, flourished in Deogiri, the capital city of - After the invasion of the city by the Muslims, the entire cultural life of the city description of the music of that period 8th centuries also serve as musical history resource material the Yadavas in middle ages took shelter in Carnatic Empire of Vijayanagar under the reign of Krishnadevaraya Thereafter, the music of South India came to be known as Carnatic Music Purandar Dasa: Credited with having founded today's Carnatic music - * elevated Carnatic music from religious and devotional form to realm of performing art Musical Trinity Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar & Syama Sastri (Tiruvarur 1750 - 1850 D) ushered in an era of dynamic development in Carnatioc music


  3. Veena Thavil Morsing Khonjira Sruthi Box Cymbals Thambura Flute Ghatam Violin


  4. Every composition of Carnatic style consists of several parts which can be divided into: Pallavi: The first thematic lines of the composition are referred to as the Pallavi . This portion is sung first and is often repeated in each stanza. - Anu Pallavi: The stanza that follows the Pallavi is called the Anu Pallavi -Varnam: This part reveals the raga of the composition to the audience. It is made up of two parts: Purvanga or the first half and Uttaranga or the second half. Ragamalika: This is the concluding part of the Pallavi. In this part, there is a scope of improvisation for the artist.


  5. Important elements of Carnatic music Sruti Musical pitch Defines a relative position of a note, rather Swara than a defined frequency Set of rules for building a melody Refers to beats, set for a particular Raga Tala composition ( a measure of time)


  6. THEORETICAL SYSTEM OF CARNATIC MUSIC Swara: . Swara is a Sanskrit word that connotes a note in the successive steps of the octave or the seven steps in the Indian classical music Hence they are also called Sapta Swaras. In the ancient period, the term Swara was associated with the recitation of Vedas, particularly in the Samaveda. In Natyasastra, Bharata had divided the swaras into twenty-two notes scale. Swaras are associated with both Hindustani and Carnatic classical music systems. They include Sa (Sadja), Ri (Rishabha), Ga (Gandharva), Ma (Madhyama), Pa (Panchama), Dha (Dhaivata), Ni (Nishada).


  7. Raga: The ragas form the basis of the melody and are akin to the melodic tone of Indian classical music The word raga is derived from the Sanskrit word Ranj which means to delight or to make happy and satisfy a person Each melodic structure of the raga has something similar to the distinct personality subject and the mood evoked by the sounds.


  8. Mood Raga Bhairav Hindol Time Morning Dawn Season Autumn Spring Peace Evokes sweetness of a young couple Deepak Night Summer Compassion Megh Mid day/ Rainy Courage Afternoon Evening Midnight Winter Gladness Shri Malkauns Winter Youthful love


  9. According to the number of notes in the raga, they are divided into three main types of ragas: Audav/Odava Raga is the pentatonic raga, contains 5 notes. Shadava Raga is the hexotonic raga, contains 6 notes. Sampurna Raga is the heptatonic raga, contains 7 notes. The ascent of the notes is called Aaroha and descent is called Avaroha.The Carnatic music has 72 main ragas and Hindustani has 6 main ragas


  10. Tala: . The rhythmic groupings of beats are called Tala. Raga is associated with melody while Tala is associated with rhythm. The rhythmical cycles in a Tala range from 3 to 108 beats. The tempo of the tala which keeps its uniformity in the time span is called laya. The unique point about the concept of the tala is that it is independent of the music that accompanies it and has its own divisions


  11. Outstanding feature of Carnatic music is its raga system & highly developed and intricate tala system with following prominent styles


  12. Gitam Simplest type of composition, taught to the beginners Very simple in construction, with an easy and melodious flow of music Suladi Similar to Gitam but are of a higher standard


  13. Svaraiati . Learnt after a course in Gitam Paves the way for the learning Varnam The theme is devotional, heroic or amorous Varnam Performed at the beginning of a concert ;a complete composed piece Helps a musician to attain mastery in presentation and command over raga, tala and bhava


  14. Jatisvaram .Similar to the svarajati in musical structure . Has no sahitya or words The piece is sung with solfa syllables only Kirtana The Kirtana had its birth about the latter half of the 14th century It is valued for devotional content of sahitya Ensembled in simple music, the kirtana abounds in Bhakti bhava Suited for congregational singing as well as individual presentation


  15. Kriti The Kriti is a development from Kirtana Basically devotional music laced with poetic beauty . The raga bhava is extensively brought out in all varied forms Pada Padas are scholarly compositions in Telegu and Tamil Slower tempoed love songs referring to human yearning for his adored god


  16. Javali In contrast to Padas which portray divine love, javalis are songs which are sensuous in concept and spirit Basically, Faster tempoed love songs with direct description of human love Tillana Corresponds to the Tarana of Hindustani music, & is a short and crisp form Meaningful phrases, interspersed with variety of meaningless syllables . Finds a place in music concerts as a conclusion piece


  17. Important Personalities of Carnatic music: Dr Balamurali Krishna was an Indian Carnatic vocalist, musician, multi- instrumentalist, playback singer and music composer. For almost a period of five decades, he has reigned at the forefront of the South Indian music. He has contributed to the world of music by creating many new ragas and with nearly four hundred classical compositions. He has recreated the traditional style in his own neo-classical style. He has been conferred with many awards including the Padma Shri, Sangeet Natak Academy Award, UNESCO Mahatma Gandhi Silver Medal. i: Born in the city of Madurai, Tamilnadu, she was the first musician to have been awarded the Bharat Ratna and also the first musician to receive the Raman Magsaysay award, often considered to be Asia s Nobel Prize. She has also travelled many places as India s cultural ambassador. She had the rare honour of singing at the UN General Assembly in 1966. Recognising her contributions to the world of music, the Government of India honoured with the Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan among many otherawards.


  18. Similarities and difference between the Hindustani and the Carnatic styles of classic music Similarities . Although there are stylistic differences, the basic elements of swara, raga and tala as foundation of both Carnatic and Hindustani are same. . Hindustani music originated in the Vedic period, while Carnatic music originated during the Bhakti movement. Thus both are having great association with religion. - Carnatic is one of two main sub-genres of India classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions, the other sub-genre being Hindustani music, which emerged as a distinct form due to Persian and Islamic influences in North India. Both the music evolved with Sanskrit language scripts in itself and through Vedic traditions . The central notions in both these system is that of a melodic mode or raga, sug to a rhythmic cycle or tala.


  19. Differences . Origin of Hindustani music is earlier than Carnatic music. It synthesizes with Vedic chants, Islamic traditions and Persian Musiqu-e-Assil style. Carnatic is Comparatively pure and was developed in 15th 16th century during Bhakti movement and also get boost in 19th -20th century. . Main emphasis in Carnatic music is on vocal music and most compositions are to are to be sung, involving gayaki style. In Hindustani music vocal- centric group is required. Many instruments are designed to accompany the singer. required. Many instruments are cin Hindustani music . The major vocal forms of Hindustani music are Dhrupad, khayal, Tarana, Thumri, Dadra and Gazals.While Carnatic music embraces several varieties of improvisation consist of Alpana, Niraval, kalpnaswaram and Ragam Thana pallavi.


  20. FOLK MUSIC OF INDIA Have special meanings or messages Often describe historical events & important rituals


  21. Place Rajasthan Haryana Kashmir MP andchhattisgarh Pandayani Chrismas Muslims Folk Music Mand Glory of Rajput rulers Ragini Gulraj Christmas carols Sojkhwani (mournful songs during Muharram) Bengal Bhatiali and Baul


  22. Place Kashmir MP Rajastharn Maharashtra and Goa MP Folk Music Wanawan - A wedding song Alha - A heroic ballad song Panihari - women fetching water Ovi - Songs of Women Pai - Festival songs Lavani Maharashtra Dandiya - Along with Garba, it is the featured dance of Navratri evenings in Western India Gujarat


  23. MUSIC INSTRUMENT IN INDIA


  24. For any music to be created, one needs to have some semblance of music instruments. The musical instruments can be broadly divided into four major categories depending on the means by which sound is produced in the instrument. The table below shows the classification of the musical instruments.


  25. Awanad/ Avanaddha Membranophones Percussion Instruments Vadya Sushira Vadya Ghana Vadya Taal/Tata Vadya Aerophones Idiophones Chordophones Wind Instruments Solid Instruments String Instruments


  26. AWANAD/ AVANADDHA VADYA Examples of this group include Tabla, Mridangam, Drum, Dhol, Congo. Tabla


  27. Mridangam:


  28. . Flute:


  29. Harmonium


  30. Shehnai:


  31. Ghana Vadva The earliest musical instruments created by man are said to be the Ghana Vadya or solid instruments. Once constructed, they do not require any special tuning. They are principally rhythmic in function and are best suited as an accompaniment to folk and tribal music and dance Different Ghana Vadya include Manjira, GhatakJaltarang, Kanch- tarang, Jhani. Khartal.


  32. Manjira


  33. Ghatak or Ghatam


  34. Taal/Tata Vadya -These instruments produce sound by the vibration of strings. which may be made of vegetable fibre, metal, silk or artificial elements like nylon. The string may be struck, plucked, rubbed (bowed), or occasionally blown by the wind to produce sound. The degree to which a string is tightened determines the pitch of the note. Different string instruments include - Veena, violin, Santoor, Sarangi, Sitar.



  35. Sarangi: It is mostly used in Hindustani classical music and is popular in parts of India, Nepal and Pakistan


  36. Instruments adopted from Western Music Piano/Keyboard Guitar Violin Drums Bass Guitar


  37. MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN Music The process of development of music has been unending since its inception during the early historic period. In the 21st century, many upgrades have been made to the booming industry of music, There are institutions that teach music to students and provide them with the theoretical and academic background in the subiect. We also see a rise in the institutions that try to showcase the artist's genius to the masses by holding open shows for the public. Some of the important developments are:


  38. .Sangeet Natak Academy .The Sangeet Natak Academy was the first national academy set up for the Arts by the Government of India in 1952. The major focus of the academy was to create a set-up for musioc, drama and dances in India. It was supposed to be the primary body for the showcasing of the performing arts in the county. They also had the ardent task of promoting the enormous intangible heritage of India as demonstrated through the forms of music, dance and drama. .They are not only supposed to be the central agency to monitor the preservation of our cultural heritage but they need to collaborate with the State and Union Territory governments to preserve and promote their culture on a national platform. The Sangeet Natak Academy also looks after several institutions, which focus primarily on either dance or music or drama. For example, they administer the National School of Drama that was set up in 1959 for focused work on dramatics in India


  39. Marris College of Music This is one of the premier institute for studying classical music in India. The legendary musicologist Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande founded it in 1926. He went back to his place of origin in Lucknow to establish this school, which would concentrate on the theory of music as well as the practice of singing and playing instruments. It was later renamed as the Bhatkhande Music Institute.


  40. Spic Macay The full form of this Kiran Seth established the community of SPIC MACAY in 1977. organisation is "Society for Promotion of Indian classical music and culture amongst the youth." It began as a voluntary youth movement that grew into a platform to showcase the culture of India to the masses, especially the younger generations who is losing touch with Indian classical roots SPICMACAY


  41. . The basic reasoning behind the organisation is to promote Indian classical music, dance and other aspects of Indian culture. They target the lay people and the youth by holding many free entry events. It has slowly grown into a behemoth organisation that has more than 200 chapters or branches all across the globe.


  42. Community State Details Gujarat and Rajasthan Langha (muslim Entertain muslimRajputs by praising tribal them through songs community) Manganiar Merasi (muslim community) Rajasthan Use an instrument Kamaicha to sing classical folk music. or They have four classes and are indulged in chanting mantras leading to perfection as per their belief. Karta bhajas West Bengal Mystic group of singers in the countryside. They are one of the classes of Kartabhaia Bauls West Bengal Jogi Rajasthan


  43. Bhopa Rajasthan Gujarat Barot, Charan, Gadhvi Muria tribes Madhya Pradesh Sing songs called Relo. Kamar community Chattisgarh Baghela Pulayar hill tribes Marriage song Madhya Pradesh Semi-historical songs devoted to hardaul deity Tamil Nadu Arunachal Pradesh Andaman & Nicobar Is. Theyperform melodies called talams. Perform ritual dance and fertility dance They have no religion and perform only ancestor Idu Mishmis Moken Tribe worship. They perform a ritual tribal dance.


  44. PYQS 1. A community of people called Manganiyars is well-known for their (a) Martial arts in North-East India (b) Musical tradition in North-West India (c) Classical vocal music in South India (d) Pietra dura tradition in Central India


  45. 2. With reference to Dhrupad, one of the major traditions of India that has been kept alive for i) Dhrupad originated and developed in e Rajput kingdoms during the Mughal period. (ii) Dhrupad is primarily a devotional and spiritual music (ii) Dhrupad Map uses Sanskrit syllables from mantras. Select the correct answer using the codes given below (a) (i) and ii) (b) (ii) and ii) (c) (i), (ii) and (ii) (d) None of these