Vinita Devi is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
23RD NOV 2018-RELIGION AND SCHOOIS OF PHILOSOPHY PART 3
BUDDHISM Early life of Buddha: Original Name - Siddhartha . Birth place - Lumbinivana Period- 563 BOC . Father - Suddhodana : Chief of Sakya clan > Capital - Kapilavasthu Mother - Maya died 7 days after his birth . Mother's Sister > Mahaprajapati Gotami - Step Mother Wife-Yasodhara Son-Rahul - Age of 29- wandering ascetic in search of truth, left family and kingdom Great Renunciation or Mahabhinishkraman
Idea of renunciation - Seeing 4 persons in 4 different stages old man,very sick man, corpse ,ascetic 2
6 continuous years - homeless ascetic Reached Gaya - Enlightenment under pipal tree Became Buddha at Gaya -"Bodh Gaya">> Sambodhi, tree - bodhi tree Mara - king of spirits and demons disturbed in m Deer park at Sarnath - 1st sermon "Dharmachakra Paravartana"
For forty-five years he roamed about as a wandering teacher and proclaimed his gospel to the princes and people and laid the foundation of the Buddhist Order of monks (Sangha). Gautama Buddha passed away at the age of 80 in 483 B.C. at a place called Kusinagar, identical with the village called Kasia in the district of Deoria in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.Mahaparinirvana is another major event in the life of Buddha which refers to Buddha's death. This is symbolised by astupa. His message laid down the foundation of both Buddhist religion and philosophy which in course of time spread far and wide to Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, etc. Buddhism stood between the two extremes: unrestrained individualistic self-indulgence and ascetic punishment of the body.
Teachings of Buddha: Earliest source - Sutta Pitaka in Pali Acc. to Buddhism - existence of a being is like a wheel of causes and effects Ignorance gives rise to desire; desire to karma; and karma leads to the impulse to be born again and again to satisfy desire which is the source of suffering If suffering is to be destroyed : Primary cause - ignorance must be destroyed . Can be achieved by the realization that the world is impermanent
EVENT IN LIEE OF BUDDHA SYMBOLISED BY Buddha's Birth Lotus & Bull The Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana) Horse Enlightment (Nirvana) Bodhi Tree First Sermon (Dhammachakraparivartan) Wheel Death (Parinirvana) Stupa
Three Jewels - Triratnas Buddha (the Dhamma enlightened)(doctrine) Sangha (order)
Suffering worldly pleasures< MIDDLE PATH >painful asceticism Cause/Origin of Suffering Four Noble Truths Suffering Path to the Cessation of Suffering Noble Eightfold Path (divided into the Three Trainings) ( Middle path) Ethical Conduct Wisdom Mental Discipline Right Understanding (Right View) Right Thought (Right Intention) Right Right Speech Right Action Right Effort Right Livelihood Right
On the issue of God, Soul and Transmigration Does Buddhism believe in GOD ?. Buddhism does NOT believe in GOD and SOUL. Their view is that life is transient and changing.Ans where change prevails, something like a permanent soul'would have no meaning Similarly rather than believing in God, Buddhism focuses on moral progress independent of God. Buddha believed that religious ideas and especially the god idea have their origins in fear. Quoting Buddha here" Gripped by fear people go to sacred mountains, sacred groves, sacred trees and shrines." However, transmigration. But, Buddhists refute to accept transmigration as understood in transmigration of soul, what they believe is rebirth and not exactly transmigration
REGARDING KARMA AND NIRVANA Buddhism laid emphasis on the law of 'Karma' by which the present is determined by the past actions. If an individual has committed no sins, he is not born again. This is an important part of LordBuddha's teachings. Buddha preached that the ultimate goal of one's life is to attain Nirvana, the eternal state of peace which is free from desire and sorrow, decay or disease and of course from birth and death. Therefore, annihilation of desire is the real problem. Prayers and sacrifices will not end desire nor will rituals and ceremonies as emphasized by Vedic religion but he stressed on moral life of an individual
BUDDHISTWORKS The literary sources of Buddhism are the three "Tripitaka" written in Pali - Sutta Pitaka,VinayaPitaka, and AbhidhammaPitaka. Dhammapad is known as the Gita of Buddhism. It is basically canonical text of Buddhism. Aswaghosa, the buddhist monk was the writer of Buddhacharita. MilindaPanho is a Buddhist Treatise about a dialogue between the Indo-greek king Menander and Buddhist monk Nagasena. Sunyavada or the theory of void is propagated by a south Indian Buddhism Philosopher, Nagarjuna. he wrote Mulamadhyamakarika, where he wrote that sunyata is the nature of all things
.Theravada is also called "southern Buddhism"as it was the form that developed in souther part of the Indian subcontinent, primarliy Sri Lanka
PANARNA CEREMONY In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarna used to be held. It was the confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season.
Buddhism remained one of the foremost religions of not only India but the whole of Asia for many centuries but slowly it lost its hold over Asia and practic ally became non-existent in India. Corruption had crept in Buddhist Sangas because of the free entry of wealth and women in the monastic order. The division of the Buddhism into different sects also contributed to the destruction of the image of the movement among the people. -The adoption of Sanskrit as language of the Buddhist texts made Buddhism lose popular contact and hold over the masses, since Sanskrit was not the language of the masses. The moral corruption of monks led to intellectual bankruptcy of the Sanga and when Hinduism was reviewed particularly under the patronage of Gupta lers, Buddhism failed to meet its intellectual challenge and therefore lost popular support.
BASICDISSIMILARITIES AINISM UDDH SM Founded on The teachings of 24Tirthankaras including The teachings of Gautama Buddha Main sects Digambara,Svetambara, Terapantha Concept Believes that soul is a living entity which They do not believe in the ideas of eternal Vardhamana Mahavira Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana, and so on self or soul (Atman) and eternity. Soul is treated as an ever changing entity. about soul sticks to different types of non-living matter. Notion on It is a real substance that is attached with Is a process, (an impression of karma Karma each jiva or body. Not effected from the determines the future). Karma is the direct person's actions. Rishabadev Non-violence, not lying, not stealing, celibacy, non-possession effect of one's own action Gautama Buddha Eight-fold path Founder Doctrines Way o Rigorous asceticism and self- mortification Middle Path (through ashtanga marga) liberation progress Confined to India Spread to other parts of world