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TEACHINGS OF MAHAVIRA The most important idea in Jainism is that the entire world is animated: even stones. rocks and water have life and they have soul Non-injuryto living beings, especially to humans, animals, plants and insects, is central to Jaina philosophy In fact, the principle of ahimsa, emphasised within Jainism, has left its mark on Indian thinking as a whole. According to Jaina teachings, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma. Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma This can be achieved only by renouncing the world; therefore, monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation. Religious texts written in Pali do not recognize Mahavira as an originator of a new religion but as a reformer of an existing religion. Mahavira accepted mostly the religious doctrines of Parshva but certainly made some alterations and additions to them
Parshva emphasized self -control and penance observe Satya (truth), Ahimsa(non-violence), Aprigraha (no possession of property), Asteya (not to receive anything which is not freely given). To these Mahavira addedBrahmacharya (celibacy). and advised his followers to .
TEACHINGS OF MAHAVIRA Philosophy of jainism associated with reality soul is in bondage due to assimilation and influx of karma" 5 vows- Householder 1. Non-injury 2. Non-stealing 3. Non-adultery 4. Speaking the truth and non-possession 5. Observing continence (Brahmacharva) Feed cooked food to the needy everyday Lay worshipper should not take to agriculture-destruction of plants and animals O Imp aspect of philosophy of jainism- Sallekhana (concept of voluntary death) LOVE ALL E E' LET LIVE
FIVE DOCTRINES OF AINISM Ahimsa Non-injury Satya :Non-lying Asteya : Non-stealing . Aparigraha : Non-possessior Teachings of mystery 24 tritankaras origin
The four states the soul may live in: Abode of the liberated soul (SIDDH-LOA) Right Faith The three paths to liberation Right Conduct Right Knowledge Heaven Human- Animal Hell Non-violence Mutual assistance of all beings
AIN PHILOSOPHY - As regards philosophy, Jaina philosophy shows a close affinity to Hindu Sankhya philosophy. It also ignores the idea of creator God, accepts that the world is full of sorrows and believes in the theory of Karma and transmigration of soul. - Jaina philosophy is that of dualism. It believes that human personality is formed of -While Ajiva is destructible, Jiva is indestructible and the salvation of an individual In short, the living and non-living (soul and matter) by coming into contact with two elements: Jiva (soul) and Ajiva (matter). is possible through progress of Jiva. each other create energies which cause birth, death and various experiences of life.These energies already created could be destroyed by a course of discipline leading to salvation or nirvana. Thius means seven things:
There is something called the living. There is something called the non-living. The two come in contact with each other. The contact leads to production of energies. The process of contact could be stopped. -The existing energies could be exhausted - Salvation could be achieved
ANEKANTAVADA refers to the principles of pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints, the notion that reality is perceived differently from diverse points of view, and that n<o single point of view is the complete truth, yet taken together they comprise the complete truth. It is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of Jainism.
UNIVERSAL LAW Every mortal possesses the potentiality of becoming as great as they were. Jainism represents the universe as functioning according to eternal law continuously passing through a series of cosmic waves of progress and decline. According to it, the sole purpose of life is the purification of soul.
. Unlike the Upnishads, Jainism preaches that the purification of soul cannot be attained through knowledge but only through rigorous ascetic punishment of the body thereby freeing the soul from the sorrows of life. A monastic life was essential for full salvation. No lay jaina could take up the profession of agriculture since this involved not only the destruction of plant life but also of many living things in the soil. That is why strict limitation of private property enforced by Jainism was interpreted to mean only landed property. There was no restriction on amassing wealth by means of trade and commerce. The practice of nonviolence in Jainism had more of negativity since it lays greater emphasis on vegetarianism and precaution against killing of insects and animals rather than on loving them.
SECTS OF JAINISM Digambaras Swethambaras After death of Mahavira- severe famine led to great exodus of Jairn Monk from ganga valley to deccan Migration led to great Schism .Digambaras-followers of Bhadrabahu @ south >> retention of rule of nudity .Swetambaras-Sthulabadra @north>> wear white garments
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIGAMBARAS AND SVETAMBARAS Digambar Jain monks do not wear clothes because they believe clothes are like other possessions, increasing dependency and desire for material things, and desire for anything ultimately leads to sorrow. Svetambar Jain monks wear white clothes for practical reasons and believe there is nothing in Jain scripture that condemns wearing clothes. These differing views arise from different interpretations of the same holy book:s Digambars believe that women cannot attain moksha in the same birth, while Svetambars believe that women may attain liberation and that Mallinath, a Tirthankar, was female. The difference centres on the fact that Digambar ascetism requires nudity. - As nudity is not practical for women, it follows that without it they cannot attain moksha. Digambars believe that Mahavir was not married, whereas Shvetambars believe the princely Mahavir was married and had a daughter. In the first Jain prayer, the Namokara Mantra. Sthanakavasis and Digambars believe that only the first five lines are formally part of theNamokara Mantra, whereas Svetambaras believe all nine form the mantra. Other differences are minor and not based on major points of doctrine.
JAIN COUNCILS & LITERATURE - In the first council at Pataliputra, the Jaina canon was divided into 12 sections which the Svetambaras accepted but Digambaras refused to accept this claiming that all old scriptures were lost. - At the second council held at Vallabhi new additions were made in the form of 'Upangas' or minor sections. . Among the 12 angas the Acharayanga Sutta and the Bhagwati Sutta are the most important. While the former deals with the code of conduct which a Jaina monk is required to follow, the later expound the Jaina doctrines in a comprehensive manner.
-Teachings of Mahavira became very popular among the masses and different sections of society were attracted to it One of the important causes for the success was the popular dialect (Prakrit) used in place of Sanskirt. The simple and homely morals prescribed to the masses attracted the people. The royal patronage by the rulers of Magadha later made Mathura and Ujjain great centres of Jainism Jain councils collected the material of the sacred texts to write them down systematically, 1n Ardhamagadhi. But in the absence of popular religious preachers after the death of Mahavira, its division into two important sects, absence of protection by the later rulers, revival of Hinduism under the Guptas, Cholas, Chalukyas and Rajput kings also contributed to its slow decline.
JAIN CONTRIBUTION TO INDIAN CULTURE Its contribution to Indian culture particularly literature, architecture and sculpture has been remarkable. Though the language of its religious texts had been Prakrit, it helped in giving a literary shape to some spoken languages of India The temples and idols still existing in various cities as Mathura, Gwalior, Junagarh, Chittor, Abu have been accepted as some of the best specimens of Indian architecture and sculpture particularly the temples of Abu, the Jaina tower at Chittorgarh, the elephant caves of Orissa and the 70 feet high idol of Bahubali in Mysore.
Spread of Jainism Spread to kailngain 4th century BC Kharavela patronised in 1t century AD Period between Mauryas and Guptas >> Orissa in the east to Mathura in west Later concentrated in 2 regions 1. 2. 3. Gujarat and Rajasthan -Svetambara sects Mysore-Digambaras Original home of Jainism-Ganga valley>little following Asia Europa
GROWTH OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE - Jainism helped a lot in the growth of Art and Architecture . The kings patronized Jainism. So many Jaina unages and the images of Jaina Tirthankara were found in many parts of India. The image of Bahuvalin in Shravanavelgola in Karnataka (known as Gomateswara) is the highest Jaina image ever craved in India . The Jaina images found in Mathura, Bundelkhand, Northem Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Benaresare important Jaina Art remains in India. . The cave art of Udayagiri in Bhubaneswar, Madhya Pradesh, Ellora and Maharashtra are uniqueexamples of Jaina art.
The Dilwara Jaina temple at Mount Abu of Rajasthan is a dream in marble. Nearly 90 percent of Jaina temples are the gifts of single wealthy individuals and as such the Jaina temples are distinguished for elaborate details and exquisite finish. The Jain Tower in the fort of Chittor is another specimen of architectural engineering. - Innumerable manuscripts in palm leaves were written down and some of them were painted with gold dust. These have given rise to a new school of painting known as the "Western Indian School". Thus, Jainism helped in the growth of art and architecture in India.
JAIN'S ARCHITECTURE TEMPLES Dilwara Jain T abu Vimalavasahi temple Teipala temple Palitana temple
Decline of Jainism Took the concept of ahimsa too far Advised one should not take medicine when one fell sick Believed life in trees and vegetables >>no harming them Did not reach common man>> extreme penance and austerity No patronage from kings Did not spread their religion Royal patrons: South India- kadamb and ganga dynasty, Amogavarsha, Siddhraj jai singh, kumarapala North India Bimbisara, Aiathasatru, Chandragupta Maurva, Bindusara, Kharavela
BUDDHISM Early life of Buddha: . Original Name - Siddhartha .Birth place - Lumbinivana .Period- 563 BC Father Suddhodana : Chief of Sakya clan > Capital - Kapilavasthu Mother - Maya died 7 days after his birth . Mother's Sister > Mahaprajapati Gotami - Step Mother . Wife - Yasodhara Son- Rahul - Age of 29- wandering ascetic in search of truth, left family and kingdom - Great Renunciation or Mahabhinishkraman
Idea of renunciation - Seeing 4 persons in 4 different stages - old man, very sick man, corpse , ascetic
6 continuous years -homeless ascetic Reached Gaya - Enlightenment under pipal tree Became Buddha at Gaya - "Bodh Gaya">> Sambodhi, tree - bodhi tree Mara-king of spirits and demons disturbed in meditation Deer park at Sarnath 1st sermon "Dharmachakra Paravartana"
MAHAPARINIRVANA For forty-five years he roamed about as a wandering teacher and proclaimed his gospel to the princes and people and laid the foundation of the Buddhist Order of monks (Sangha). Gautama Buddha passed away at the age of 80 in 483 B.C. at a place called Kusinagar, identical with the village called Kasia in the district of Deoria in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.Mahaparinirvana is another major event in the life of Buddha which refers to Buddha's death. This is symbolised by a stupa. His message laid down the foundation of both Buddhist religion and philosophy which in course of time spread far and wide to Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, etc. Buddhism stood between the two extremes: unrestrained individualistic self-indulgence and ascetic punishment of the body.
Teachings of Buddha: Earliest source - Sutta Pitaka in Pali - Acc. to Buddhism - existence of a being is like a wheel of causes and effects Ignorance gives rise to desire; desire to karma; and karma leads to the impulse to be born again and again to satisfy desire which is the source of suffering -If suffering is to be destroyed : Primary cause - ignorance must be Can be achieved by the realization that the world is impermanent
EVENT IN LIFE OF BUDDHA SYMBOL SED BY Buddha's Birth Lotus & Bul The Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana) Horse Enlightment (Nirvana) Bodhi Tree First Sermon (Dhammachakraparivartan) Wheel Death (Parinirvana) Stupa