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BUDDHISM AND JAINISM
PREVIOUS YEARS' QUESTIONS (PRELIMS) 1. The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance 2. Every object, even the smallest particle has a soul 3. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended Select the correct answer using the codes given below 2 0 (a) Universal law 2 4. Mabamastakabbisbeka, a great religious event, is associated with and done for who of the 5. With reference to ancient Jainism, which one of the following statements is correct? (2004) after the Council held at Pataliputra
6. Consider the following statements (2003) 1. Vardhaman Mahavira's mother was the daughter of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka 2. Gautama Buddha's mother was a princess from the Koshalan dynasty 3. Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankara, belonged to Banaras Which of these statements is are correct? (a)1 only (b) 2 only (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3 7. Which one of the following statements is not correct? (2002) (a) The statue of Gomateshwara at Sravanabelagola represents the last Trithankara of Jains (b) India's largest Buddhist monastery is in Arunachal Pradesh (c) The Khajuraho temples were built under Chandela Kings (d) The Hoysalesvara temple is dedicated to Siva 8. Consider the following statements (2000) 1. The emphasis of Jainism on non-violence (ahimsa) prevented agriculturalists from embracing Jainism 2. Cultivation involved killing of insects and pests Which of the statements is / are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
PREVIOUS YEARS QUESTIONS (PRELIMS) 1. With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements (2016) 1. The concept of Bodhisattva is central to Hinayana sect of Buddhism 2. Bodhisattva is a compassionate one on his way to enlightenment. 3. Bodhisattva delays achieving his own salvation to help all sentient beings on their path to it. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (c) 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 2. Which of the following kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha? 2. Gandhara 4. Magadha (2015) 1. Avanti 3. Kosala Select the correct answer using the code given below (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 3 and 4 only 3. Which of the following Kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha? (2014) 1. Avanti 2. Gandhara 3. Kosala 4. Magadha Select the correct answer using the code given below (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1,3 and4
4. Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the (2013) difference between the two? (a) Vihara is a place of worship, while Chaitya is the dwelling place of the monks (b) Chaitya is a place of worship, while Vihara is the dwelling place of the monks (c) Chaitya is the stupa at the far end of the cave, while Vihara is the hall axial to it (d) There is no material difference between the two 5. Which one of the following describes best the concept of Nirvana in Buddhism? (2013) (a) The extinction of the flame of desire (b) The complete annihilation of self (c) A state of bliss and rest (d) A mental stage beyond all comprehension 6. With reference to the history of ancient India, which of the following was/were common to both (2012) Buddhism and Jainism? 1. Avoidance of extremities of penance and enjoyment 2. Indifference to the authority of the Vedas 3. Denial of efficacy of rituals Select the correct answer using the codes given below (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 7. In which State is the Buddhist site Tabo Monastery located? (2009) (a) Arunachal Pradesh (c) Sikkim (b) Himachal Pradesh (d) Uttarakhand
8. In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarna used to be held. It was the (2002) (a) Occasion to elect the Sanghaparinayaka and two speakers one on Dhamma and the other on Vinaya (b) Confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season (c) Ceremony of initiation of new person into the Buddhist Sangha in which the head is shaved and when yellow robes are offered (d) Gathering of Buddhist monks on the next day to the full-moon day of Ashadha when they take up a fixed abode for the next four months of rainy season 9. Who among the following presided over the Buddhist Council held during the reign of Kanishka at Kashmir? (a) Parsva (2001) (b) Nagarjuna (c) Sudraka (d) Vasumitra 10. The concept of Eight-fold path forms the theme of (1998) (a) Dipavamsa (c) Mahaparinibban Sutta (b)Divyavadana (d) Dharma Chakra Pravartana Sutta 11. Many of the Greeks, Kushanas and Shakas embraced Buddhism rather than Hinduism because (a) Buddhism was in the ascendant at that time (b) They had renounced the policy of war and violence (c) Caste-ridden Hinduism did not attract them (d) Buddhism provided easier access to Indian society 12. Milindapanho is in the form of a dialogue between the king Menander and the Buddhist monk (a) Nagasena () Nagarjuna (c) Nagabhatta (d) Kumarilabhatta (1997)
12. Milindapanho is in the form of a dialogue between the king Menander and the Buddhist monk (d) Kumarilabhatta 13. Which of the following were common to both Buddhism and Jainism? (1997) (1996) (a) Nagasena (b) Nagarjuna (c) Nagabhatta 1. Avoidance of extremities of penance and enjoyment 2. Indifference to the authority of the Vedas 3. Denial of efficacy of rituals 4. Non -injury to animal life. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b)2, 3 and 4 (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d)1 and 2 PREVIOUS YEARS' QUESTIONS (MAINS) 1. Write about the following (2005) Sutta Pitaka 2. Write about Chatiya (1997) MODEL QUESTION (MAINS) 1. Buddhism became a simple, economical and popular religion for the common people and provided impetus to democratic spirit and social equality. Evaluate.
-Sixth century BC witnessed the rise of many religious movements in ancient India. People expressed their discontentment with the biasedVarna system, priesthood and complex ritualistic sacrifices. It was against this background of exploitation of the masses and discrimination among people on the basis of Varna system that Mahavira and Buddha protested, resulting in rise and growth of liberal and inclusive religious sects in ancient India
CAUSES FOR THE RISE AND GROWTH OF UNORTHODOX RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS- I AIN SM-BUDDHISM THE VARNA SYSTEM & THE DOMINATION OF PRIESTLY CLASS The varna-divided society seems to have generated tensions during the sixth century B.C. The Kshatriyas who functioned as rulers, reacted strongly against the ritualistic domination of the brahmanas and seem to have led a kind of protest movement against the importance attached to the birth in the varna system. The kshatriya reaction against the domination of the priestly class called brahmanas, who claimed various privileges, was one of the causes of the origin of new religions. Buddha and Mahavira, both came from Kshatriya origin
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY & THE IRON PLOUGHSHARE The agricultural economy based on the iron ploughshare required the use of bullocks, and it could not flourish without animal husbandry. But the Vedic practice of killing cattle indiscriminately in sacrifices stood in the way of the progress of new agriculture. The newly emerging peasant communities who appear to have become dominant did not approve the killing of cattle in the sacrifice, as cattle wealth was very essential to supplement agricultural operations. The non-killing or Ahimsa preached by the heterodox sects appears to have made these social groups opt for the heterodox sects.
THE INCREASE IN TRADE AND COMIMERCE The increase in trade and commerce added to the importance of the vaishyas. The vaishyas being ranked third in the brahmanical society, looked for some religion which could improve their position. The patronage extended to trade and commerce in particular by Buddhism and Jainism made the merchants, rich and poor agriculturists and artisans to favour Buddhism and Jainism THE NEW FORMS OF PROPERTY The new forms of property created social inequalities, and caused misery and suffering to the masses of the people. So the common people wished to return to primitive life. They wanted to get back to the ascetic ideal which dispensed with the new forms of property and the new style of life.
THE COMPLEX RITUALS AND SACRIFICES The complex rituals and sacrifices advocated in the Later Vedic period were not acceptable to the common people. The sacrificial ceremonieswere also found to be too expensive. The superstitious beliefs and mantras confused the people. The teachings of Upanishads, an alternative to the system of sacrifices, were highly philosophical in nature and therefore not easily understood by all Therefore, what was needed in the larger interests of the people was a simple, short and intelligible way to salvation for all people. Such religious teaching should also be in a language known to them This need was fulfilled by the teachings of Buddha and Mahavira. The code of conduct prescribed for lay people by these new religions appeared to be more practical than performing protracted rites through the Brahmin priest.
THE ORIGIN OF JAINISM AND VARDHAMANA MAHAVIRA JAINISM Division of society into 4 varnas Desire of vaishyas to improve social position Reaction of kshatriyas to brahmins supremacY New Reaction of agricultural economy commoners
. There were 24 Tirthankaras, all Kshatriyas who belong to Royal families. - The first was Rishabhanath and the last was Vardhamana Mahavira . Parshvanatha 23rd Tirthankara was a historical figure and flourished 250 yrs before Mahavira. He was a prince who abandoned the throne and led the life of an ascetic . In the Rigveda, there are references to Rishaba, the first Tirthankara as claimed by Jains - Vardhaman Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. According to Jain tradition, mostTirthankaras were born in the mid- Gangetic basin and attained nirvana in Bihar.
Real- Vardhamana Personal details of Mahavira Titles- Mahavira, Jina, Jitendrita, Nigrantha Birth540BC kundaligrama Wife Yasoda Daughter-Annoia Son-in-law Jamali Mother-Trisala Father - Siddhartha
According to one tradition, Vardhaman Mahavira was born in 540 BC in a village near Vaishali Initially, Mahavira led the life of a householder but in his quest for truth he abandoned the world at the age of 30 and became an ascetic After wandering from place to place for 12 years, he attained omniscience (Kaivalya) through which he conquered misery and happiness. Because of this conquest, he is known as Mahavira or the great hero or Jina that is the conqueror and his followers are known as Jainas. He propagated his religion for thirty years and his mission took him to Koshala, Magadha, Mithila, Champa etc. He passed away at the age of 72 in 468 BC at Pavapuri near modern Rajgir
TEACHINGS OF MAHAVIRA The most important idea in Jainism is that the entire world is animated: even stones. rocks and water have life and they have soul Non-injuryto living beings, especially to humans, animals, plants and insects, is central to Jaina philosophy In fact, the principle of ahimsa, emphasised within Jainism, has left its mark on Indian thinking as a whole. According to Jaina teachings, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma. Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma This can be achieved only by renouncing the world; therefore, monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation. Religious texts written in Pali do not recognize Mahavira as an originator of a new religion but as a reformer of an existing religion. Mahavira accepted mostly the religious doctrines of Parshva but certainly made some alterations and additions to them
Parshva emphasized self -control and penance observe Satya (truth), Ahimsa(non-violence), Aprigraha (no possession of property), Asteya (not to receive anything which is not freely given). To these Mahavira addedBrahmacharya (celibacy). and advised his followers to .