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AIN PHILOSOPHY - As regards philosophy, Jaina philosophy shows a close affinity to Hindu Sankhya philosophy. It also ignores the idea of creator God, accepts that the world is full of sorrows and believes in the theory of Karma and transmigration of soul. - Jaina philosophy is that of dualism. It believes that human personality is formed of -While Ajiva is destructible, Jiva is indestructible and the salvation of an individual In short, the living and non-living (soul and matter) by coming into contact with two elements: Jiva (soul) and Ajiva (matter). is possible through progress of Jiva. each other create energies which cause birth, death and various experiences of life.These energies already created could be destroyed by a course of discipline leading to salvation or nirvana. Thius means seven things:
There is something called the living. There is something called the non-living. The two come in contact with each other. The contact leads to production of energies. The process of contact could be stopped. -The existing energies could be exhausted - Salvation could be achieved
ANEKANTAVADA refers to the principles of pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints, the notion that reality is perceived differently from diverse points of view, and that n<o single point of view is the complete truth, yet taken together they comprise the complete truth. It is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of Jainism.
UNIVERSAL LAW Every mortal possesses the potentiality of becoming as great as they were. Jainism represents the universe as functioning according to eternal law continuously passing through a series of cosmic waves of progress and decline. According to it, the sole purpose of life is the purification of soul.
. Unlike the Upnishads, Jainism preaches that the purification of soul cannot be attained through knowledge but only through rigorous ascetic punishment of the body thereby freeing the soul from the sorrows of life. A monastic life was essential for full salvation. No lay jaina could take up the profession of agriculture since this involved not only the destruction of plant life but also of many living things in the soil. That is why strict limitation of private property enforced by Jainism was interpreted to mean only landed property. There was no restriction on amassing wealth by means of trade and commerce. The practice of nonviolence in Jainism had more of negativity since it lays greater emphasis on vegetarianism and precaution against killing of insects and animals rather than on loving them.
SECTS OF JAINISM Digambaras Swethambaras After death of Mahavira- severe famine led to great exodus of Jairn Monk from ganga valley to deccan Migration led to great Schism .Digambaras-followers of Bhadrabahu @ south >> retention of rule of nudity .Swetambaras-Sthulabadra @north>> wear white garments
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIGAMBARAS AND SVETAMBARAS Digambar Jain monks do not wear clothes because they believe clothes are like other possessions, increasing dependency and desire for material things, and desire for anything ultimately leads to sorrow. Svetambar Jain monks wear white clothes for practical reasons and believe there is nothing in Jain scripture that condemns wearing clothes. These differing views arise from different interpretations of the same holy book:s Digambars believe that women cannot attain moksha in the same birth, while Svetambars believe that women may attain liberation and that Mallinath, a Tirthankar, was female. The difference centres on the fact that Digambar ascetism requires nudity. - As nudity is not practical for women, it follows that without it they cannot attain moksha. Digambars believe that Mahavir was not married, whereas Shvetambars believe the princely Mahavir was married and had a daughter. In the first Jain prayer, the Namokara Mantra. Sthanakavasis and Digambars believe that only the first five lines are formally part of theNamokara Mantra, whereas Svetambaras believe all nine form the mantra. Other differences are minor and not based on major points of doctrine.
JAIN COUNCILS & LITERATURE - In the first council at Pataliputra, the Jaina canon was divided into 12 sections which the Svetambaras accepted but Digambaras refused to accept this claiming that all old scriptures were lost. - At the second council held at Vallabhi new additions were made in the form of 'Upangas' or minor sections. . Among the 12 angas the Acharayanga Sutta and the Bhagwati Sutta are the most important. While the former deals with the code of conduct which a Jaina monk is required to follow, the later expound the Jaina doctrines in a comprehensive manner.
-Teachings of Mahavira became very popular among the masses and different sections of society were attracted to it One of the important causes for the success was the popular dialect (Prakrit) used in place of Sanskirt. The simple and homely morals prescribed to the masses attracted the people. The royal patronage by the rulers of Magadha later made Mathura and Ujjain great centres of Jainism Jain councils collected the material of the sacred texts to write them down systematically, 1n Ardhamagadhi. But in the absence of popular religious preachers after the death of Mahavira, its division into two important sects, absence of protection by the later rulers, revival of Hinduism under the Guptas, Cholas, Chalukyas and Rajput kings also contributed to its slow decline.
JAIN CONTRIBUTION TO INDIAN CULTURE Its contribution to Indian culture particularly literature, architecture and sculpture has been remarkable. Though the language of its religious texts had been Prakrit, it helped in giving a literary shape to some spoken languages of India The temples and idols still existing in various cities as Mathura, Gwalior, Junagarh, Chittor, Abu have been accepted as some of the best specimens of Indian architecture and sculpture particularly the temples of Abu, the Jaina tower at Chittorgarh, the elephant caves of Orissa and the 70 feet high idol of Bahubali in Mysore.
Spread of Jainism Spread to kailngain 4th century BC Kharavela patronised in 1t century AD Period between Mauryas and Guptas >> Orissa in the east to Mathura in west Later concentrated in 2 regions 1. 2. 3. Gujarat and Rajasthan -Svetambara sects Mysore-Digambaras Original home of Jainism-Ganga valley>little following Asia Europa
GROWTH OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE - Jainism helped a lot in the growth of Art and Architecture . The kings patronized Jainism. So many Jaina unages and the images of Jaina Tirthankara were found in many parts of India. The image of Bahuvalin in Shravanavelgola in Karnataka (known as Gomateswara) is the highest Jaina image ever craved in India . The Jaina images found in Mathura, Bundelkhand, Northem Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Benaresare important Jaina Art remains in India. . The cave art of Udayagiri in Bhubaneswar, Madhya Pradesh, Ellora and Maharashtra are uniqueexamples of Jaina art.
The Dilwara Jaina temple at Mount Abu of Rajasthan is a dream in marble. Nearly 90 percent of Jaina temples are the gifts of single wealthy individuals and as such the Jaina temples are distinguished for elaborate details and exquisite finish. The Jain Tower in the fort of Chittor is another specimen of architectural engineering. - Innumerable manuscripts in palm leaves were written down and some of them were painted with gold dust. These have given rise to a new school of painting known as the "Western Indian School". Thus, Jainism helped in the growth of art and architecture in India.
JAIN'S ARCHITECTURE TEMPLES Dilwara Jain T abu Vimalavasahi temple Teipala temple Palitana temple
Decline of Jainism Took the concept of ahimsa too far Advised one should not take medicine when one fell sick Believed life in trees and vegetables >>no harming them Did not reach common man>> extreme penance and austerity No patronage from kings Did not spread their religion Royal patrons: South India- kadamb and ganga dynasty, Amogavarsha, Siddhraj jai singh, kumarapala North India Bimbisara, Aiathasatru, Chandragupta Maurva, Bindusara, Kharavela
BUDDHISM Early life of Buddha: . Original Name - Siddhartha .Birth place - Lumbinivana .Period- 563 BC Father Suddhodana : Chief of Sakya clan > Capital - Kapilavasthu Mother - Maya died 7 days after his birth . Mother's Sister > Mahaprajapati Gotami - Step Mother . Wife - Yasodhara Son- Rahul - Age of 29- wandering ascetic in search of truth, left family and kingdom - Great Renunciation or Mahabhinishkraman
Idea of renunciation - Seeing 4 persons in 4 different stages - old man, very sick man, corpse , ascetic
6 continuous years -homeless ascetic Reached Gaya - Enlightenment under pipal tree Became Buddha at Gaya - "Bodh Gaya">> Sambodhi, tree - bodhi tree Mara-king of spirits and demons disturbed in meditation Deer park at Sarnath 1st sermon "Dharmachakra Paravartana"
MAHAPARINIRVANA For forty-five years he roamed about as a wandering teacher and proclaimed his gospel to the princes and people and laid the foundation of the Buddhist Order of monks (Sangha). Gautama Buddha passed away at the age of 80 in 483 B.C. at a place called Kusinagar, identical with the village called Kasia in the district of Deoria in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.Mahaparinirvana is another major event in the life of Buddha which refers to Buddha's death. This is symbolised by a stupa. His message laid down the foundation of both Buddhist religion and philosophy which in course of time spread far and wide to Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, etc. Buddhism stood between the two extremes: unrestrained individualistic self-indulgence and ascetic punishment of the body.
Teachings of Buddha: Earliest source - Sutta Pitaka in Pali - Acc. to Buddhism - existence of a being is like a wheel of causes and effects Ignorance gives rise to desire; desire to karma; and karma leads to the impulse to be born again and again to satisfy desire which is the source of suffering -If suffering is to be destroyed : Primary cause - ignorance must be Can be achieved by the realization that the world is impermanent
EVENT IN LIFE OF BUDDHA SYMBOL SED BY Buddha's Birth Lotus & Bul The Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana) Horse Enlightment (Nirvana) Bodhi Tree First Sermon (Dhammachakraparivartan) Wheel Death (Parinirvana) Stupa
Three Jewels - Triratnas Buddha (the Dhamma enlightened) (doctrine) Sangha (order)
Suffering worldly pleasures< MIDDLE PATH >painful asceticism. Cause/Origin of Suffering Four Noble Truths Suffering Path to the Noble Eightfold Path (divided into the Three Trainings) Suffering (Middle path) Ethical Conduct Wisdom Mental Discipline Right Understanding (Right View) Right Thought Right Intention) Right Right Speech Right Action Right Effort Right Livelihood Right
On the issue of God, Soul and Transmigration Does Buddhism believe in GOD ?. Buddhism does NOT believe in GOD and SOUL. Their view is that life is transient and changing. Ans where change prevails, something like a 'permanent soul' would have no meaning. Similarly rather than believing in God, Buddhism focuses on moral progress independent of God. Buddha believed that religious ideas and especially the god idea have their origins in fear. Quoting Buddha here " Gripped by fear people go to sacred mountains, sacred groves, sacred trees and shrines." However, Buddhism has been said to accept the theory of transmigration. But, Buddhists refute to accept transmigration as understood in' transmigration of soul'.What they believe is rebirth and not exactly transmigration
REGARDING KARMA AND NIRVANA Buddhism laid emphasis on the law of 'Karma' by which the present is determined by the past actions. If an individual has committed no sins, he is not born again. This is an important part of Lord Buddha's teachings. Buddha preached that the ultimate goal of one's life is to attain Nirvana, the eternal state of peace which is free from desire and sorrow, decay or disease and of course from birth and death. Therefore, annihilation of desire is the real problem. Prayers and sacrifices will not end desire nor will rituals and ceremonies as emphasized by Vedic religion but he stressed on moral life of an individual.
Buddhist Councils Presidency Mahakashyapa Important Remarks The Buddhist Canon as it exist today was settled at this Council and preservedas an oral tradition First schism occurs in which the Mahasanghika school parts ways with the Sthaviravadins and the Theravadins Patronage 1st council- Rajgriha, Ajatshatru 400 BC 2nd council-Vaishali,Kalasoka 383 BC Sabakami 3rd council- Patliputra, Ashoka 250 BC 4th council- Kashmir, Kanishka 72 AD Moggaliputta TissaAbhidhamma Pitaka was established Buddhism gotdivided nt Mahayana & Hinayana Vasumitra
-Buddhist Literary Texts -Tripitakas Tripitakas ( three baskets) comprises the three main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon 1.Vinaya-pitaka - contains the rules of communal life for monks and nuns 2. Sutta-pitaka collection of sermons of the Buddha 3. Abhidhamma-pitaka - contains interpretations and analyses of Buddhist concept
BUDDHIST WORKS . The literary sources of Buddhism are the three "Tripitaka" written in Pali - Sutta Pitaka, VinayaPitaka, and AbhidhammaPitaka. Dhammapad is known as the Gita of Buddhism. It is basically canonical text of Buddhism swaghosa, the buddhist monk was the writer of Buddhacharita. MilindaPanho is a Buddhist Treatise about a dialogue between the Indo-greek king Menander and Buddhist monk Nagasena. Sunyavada or the theory of void is propagated by a south Indian Buddhism Philosopher, Nagarjuna. he wrote Mulamadhyamakarika, where he wrote that sunyata is the nature of all things.
TWO IMPORTANT SECTS o BUDDHISIVI MAHAYANA & HINAYANA There are conflicting view about the divisions/sects in Buddhism. This is because each division along with their different schools of thought promote their own sect as actual Buddhism. Nevertheless, few precise differences can be ascertained - - After Buddha's demise ( Mahaparinirman), the Buddhist order split into two groups. 1. Hinayana (lesser vehicle)- they interpreted Buddha's teaching literally and strictly, emphasizing on strict personal meditation and the monastic path to Enlightenment. 2. Mahayana ( greater vehicle) - they interpreted Buddha?s teaching logically and liberally trying to understand the true meaning of Buddha's teachings.
BUT WHY WERE THESE CALLED "LESSER" AND "GREATER" VEHICLES? . The word vehicle is used here to describe the Buddha's teachings, since the ultimate purpose of the teachings is to carry people from the shore of this impure world to the other shore of enlightenment. A great vehicle is like a large ship that can carry many people over the ocean. A lesser vehicle is like a little boat that can carry only a few people across a river. . So Mahayana, which promises spiritual liberation to both monks and ordinary people is called greater vehicle because it can help a large number of people in attaining enlightenment. On the other hand, Hinayana which calls for strict discipline cannot be practiced by ordinary people can only carry fewer people towards enlightenment. It is to be noted that here lesser and greater are not to be understood in terms of inferior and superior though rival schools do this name calling.
. Theravada is also called "southern Buddhism" as it was the form 35 that developed in souther part of the Indian subcontinent, primarliy Sri Lanka
BODHISATTVA -A bodhisattva is literally a living being (sattva) who aspires to enlightenment (Bodhi) and carries out altruistic practices. The bodhisattva ideal is central to the Mahayana Buddhist tradition as the individual who seeks enlightenment both for him-or herself and for others.Compassion, an empathetic sharing of the sufferings of others, is the bodhisattva's greatest characteristic. A bodhisattva is a being who carries out the work of the Buddha's, vowing not to personally settle into the salvation of final Buddhahood until she or he can assist all beings throughout the vast reaches of time and space to fully be free
IMPORTANT BUDDHIST MONASTER ES IN ND A Monastery Gandhola Monastery Lhalung Monastery Tabo Monastery Location Highlights Himachal Pradesh Chenab river Himachal Pradeslh One of the earliest in Spiti Valley Himachal Pradesh Listed by the ASI as a national historic treasure Oldest monastery in India Largest centre of Nyingmapa sect Established by Penor Rinpoche in 1963 Namdroling Monastery Karnataka (near Mysore)
PAVARNA CEREMONY . In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarna used to be held. It was the confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season.
DECLINE OF BUDDHISMM -Buddhism remained one of the foremost religions of not only India but the whole of Asia for many centuries but slowly it lost its hold over Asia and practically became non-existent in India. Corruption had crept in Buddhist Sangas because of the free entry of wealth and women in the monastic order. The division of the Buddhism into different sects also contributed to the destruction of the image of the movement among the people. The adoption of Sanskrit as language of the Buddhist texts made Buddhism lose popular contact and hold over the masses, since Sanskrit was not the language of the masses. The moral corruption of monks led to intellectual bankruptcy of the Sanga and when Hinduism was reviewed particularly under the patronage of Gupta rulers, Buddhism failed to meet its intellectual challenge and therefore lost popular support.
Moreover, Buddhism basically was an atheistic system which did not regard God as an essential creator and preserver of the Universe. Btia Greator and preserver of . The ruling class also realised might as the order of the day and need of the time where non-violence and other teachings were becoming increasingly irrelevant, and thereby withdrew its support to Buddhism. Hinduism bounced back with the spirit of toleration and the acceptability of new ideas in its fold. But the final blow to Buddhism came with the invasion of Hunas and the Turks
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN TAINISM AND BUDDHISM: . Both Jainism and Buddhism originally derived their ideas from the Upanishads and both had a common background of Aryan culture. Both appeared as revolts against orthodox Brahmanical Hinduism. Both Buddhism and Jainism sprang in Eastern India where the Aryan culture had no sweeping influence. They contributed to the rise of the revolutionary anti-Brahmanical creeds of Buddhism and Jainism irn Eastern India.
In respect of their basic philosophical concepts, Buddhism and Jainism were indebted to the Sankhya philosophy. The Buddhists and Jainas equally believe that the world is full of misery, that the object or religion is to liberate self from the miseries of this world by eliminating rebirth. This concept of the Jainas and the Buddhists that world is a misery and that man is subjected to the result of Karma was borrowed from the Upanishadas and the Sankhya philosophy. Both Mahavira and Buddha rejected the authority of the Vedas and the efficacy of Vedic rites. Both upheld ascetic life, moral and ethical codes. Both the teachers upheld non-violence as means of salvation. Both dismissed caste system Jainism and Buddhism had largest number of followers among the mercantile class. Both Mahavira and Buddha preached their doctrines in the language of the people
JAINISM BUDDHISM Founded on The teachings of 24Tirthankaras including The teachings of Gautama Buddha Vardhamana Mahavira Digambara,Svetambara, Terapantha Main sects Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana, and so on Concept elieves that soul is a living entity which They do not believe in the ideas of eternal about soul sticks to different types of non-living matter. self or soul (Atman) and eternity. Soul is treated as an ever changing entity. Notion on t is a real substance that is attached with Is a process, (an impression of karma Karma ech jiva or body. Not effected from the determines the future). Karma is the direct person's actions. Rishabadev Non-violence, not lying, not stealing, celibacy, Eight-fold path non-possession effect of one's own action Gautama Buddha Founder Doctrines Way to Rigorous asceticism and self- mortification iberation progress Confined to India Middle Path (through ashtanga marga) Spread to other parts of world