UPSC » UPSC – Electrical Engineering Syllabus

UPSC – Electrical Engineering Syllabus


1. Circuits—Theory : 

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh  analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits;  sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port  networks.  

2. Signals and Systems : 

Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems;  convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and  differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function.  Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems. 

3. E.M. Theory :  

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and  refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith  chart.  

4. Analog Electronics : 

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. 

Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror;  Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis of  amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for  oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits.  Linear and switching power supplies. 

5. Digital Electronics : 

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL,  MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.  Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers,  multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic  implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA). 

6. Energy Conversion :  

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC  machines : characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers :  principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction  machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.  

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives : 

Semi-conductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static  characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters :  fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters;  Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable speed drives. 

8. Analog Communication : 

Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages;  probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal  transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSB SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals;  narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation  system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked  loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM receivers. 


1. Control Systems :  

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems;  principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems : time-domain and  transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polor plots,  Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable  representation and analysis of control systems.  

2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers : 

PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register settiming diagram, programming, interrupts,  memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

3. Measurement and Instrumentation : 

Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance,  inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic  measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyser, distoration-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric  crystal.  

4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control : 

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and  reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices;  load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components,  analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability : swing curves and equal  area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission. 

5. Power System Protection : 

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit  brakers. Computer aided protection : introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric  relays and application of DSP to protection. 

6. Digital Communication : 

Pulse code modulation (PCM), defferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM),  Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK,  PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolation codes.  Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.