UPSC » UPSC – Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus

UPSC – Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus


1. Animal Nutrition : 

1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon—nitrogen  balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in  ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation,  egg, wool, and meat production. 

1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein inter-relationships. Evaluation of protein  quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth,  pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production. 

1.3 Major and trace minerals—Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic  minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fatsoluble and water—soluble vitamins in the body, their  sources and deficiency symptoms. 

1.4 Feed additives—methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides,  antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like  harmones and antibiotics—latest concepts. 

1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology  and feed processing. Anti-nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and  quality control. Digestibility trials—direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in  grazing animals. 

1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves,  pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during different  stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milk  production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production. 

1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs  for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine. 

1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.

2. Animal Physiology : 

2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health and  disease. 

2.2 Blood constituents.—Properties and functions-blood cell formation—Haemoglobin synthesis and  chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood;  Haemorrhagic disorders—anti-coagulants—blood groups—Blood volume—Plasma expanders Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis. 

2.3 Circulation.—Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms.  Work and efficiency of heart—effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle,  nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressuer  and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock.  Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds. 

2.4 Respiration.—Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases-neural control of  respiration-Chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds. 

2.5 Excretion.—Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal  function-renal regulation of acid-base balance : physiological constituents of urine-renal failure passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio chemical test for urinary dysfunction. 

2.6 Endocrine glands.—Functional disorders—their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones,  mechanism and control of secretion—hormonal receptors-classification and function. 

2.7 Growth and Animal Production.—Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves,  measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality. 

2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion.—Current status of hormonal control of  mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and Female reproductive organs,  their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions. 

2.9 Environmental Physiology.—Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of  adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour,  climatology—various parameters and their importance. Animal ecology. Physiology of behaviour.  Effect of stress on health and production. 

3. Animal Reproduction : 

Semen quality.—Preservation and Artificial Insemination—Components of semen, composition of  spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in  vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents, sperm  concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and  poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat  breeding. 

4. Livestock Production and Management : 

4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming.—Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries.  Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy  farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Heard recording, budgeting cost of milk  production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic rations for  dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.  Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding  young and adult stock; Feeding records. 

4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production.—Development of practical and economic rations for  sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and  mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land  requirements and socio-economic concept. 

4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.

5. Genetics and Animal Breeding : 

5.1 History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis : Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian  genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and  sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic  inheritance, Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein  synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting  mutations and mutation rate, Transgenesis. 

5.2 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding—Quantitative Vs. Qualitative traits; Hardy  Weinberg Law; Population Vs. Individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene  frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of  estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Effective population size; Breeding value,  estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; Partitioning of variation;  Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple  measurements; Resemblance between relatives. 

5.3 Breeding Systems.—Breeds of livestsock and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic and  phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection  and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Pregnency  testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative  evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated  response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of  inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining ability;  Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index. 

6. Extension : 

Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to  educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems  and constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.


1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene : 

1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques : Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E. staining—Freezing microtomy—Microscopy Bright field microscope and electron microscope.  Cytology-structure of cell organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types—Tissues and their  classification-embryonic and adult tissues—Comparative histology of organs—Vascular, Nervous,  digestive, respiratory, musculo-skeletal and urogenital systems—Endocrine glands—Integuments— sense organs. 

1.2 Embryology.—Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals  gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes and placentation-types of placenta in  domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives. 

1.3 Bovine Anatomy.—Regional Anatomy : Paranasal sinuses of OX— surface anatomy of salivary  glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandi-buloalveolar, mental and cornnal nerve  block. Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudental nerve, median, ulnar and radial  nervestibial, fibular and digital nerves—Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural  anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal  and pelvic cavities-comparative-features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the  biomechanics of mammalian body. 

1.4 Anatomy of Fowl.—Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation to respiration and  flying, digestion and egg production. 

1.5 pharmacology and therapeutics drugs.—Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and  pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting on Autonomic  nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autocoids.  Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in  therapeutics—chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible  tissues of animals—chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to “insecticides, plants,  metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins”. 

1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation.—Assessment of pollution of  water, air and soil—Importance of climate in animal health—effect of environment on animal  function and performance relationship between industrialisation and animal agriculture—animal  housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows,  milking cows, broiler birds—stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.

2. Animal Diseases

2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, post-moretem lesions, diagnosis, and control of  infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.  

2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig  and poultry. 

2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds. 

2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion,  dehydration, stroke, poisioning. 

2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. 

2.6 Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific diseases—hard  immunity—disease free zones—‘zero’ disease concept—chemoprophylaxis.

2.7 Anaesthesia.—local, regional and general-prenesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical  interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomassal displacement—Caesarian  operations. Rumenotomy—Castrations. 

2.8 Disease investigation techniques.—Materials for laboratory investigation—Establishment.  Animal Health Centres—Disease free zone. 

3. Veterinary Public Health : 

3.1 Zoonoses.—Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of  zoonotic diseases—occupational zoonotic diseases. 

3.2 Epidemiology.—Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological  measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and  food borne infections. OIE regulation, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures. 

3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence.—Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and  prevention of animal diseases—State and Central Rules for prevention of animal and animal  product borne diseases—S.P. C.A.—Veterolegal cases—Certificates—Materials and Methods of  collection of samples for veterolegal investigation. 

4. Milk and Milk Products Technology : 

4.1 Market Milk.—Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing,  distribution, marketing defects and their control. Preparation of the following milks : Pasteurized,  standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and  flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi,  Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation  requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment. 

4.2 Milk Products Technology.—Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing and  marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed,  evaporated, dried milk and baby food, lce cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter  milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products—BIS and Agmark specifications,  legal standards, quality control nutritive properties. Packaging processing and operational control.  Costing of dairy products. 

5. Meat Hygiene and Technology : 

5.1 Meat Hygiene

5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations;  abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat  cuts—grading of carcass meat cuts—duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat  production. 

5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat.—Spoilage of meat and control measures— Post- slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them—Quality  improvement methods—Adulteration of meat and detection—Regulatory provisions in Meat trade  and Industry. 

5.2 Meat Technology 

5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat.—Meat emulsions—Methods of preservation of meat—Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and  formulations. 

5.3 By-products.—Slaughter house by-products and their utilisation—Edible and inedible by  products—Social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house by-products— Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals. 

5.4 Poultry Products Technology.—Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat  and products. Legal and BIS standards. 

Structure composition and nutritive value of eggs Microbial spoilage. Preservation and  maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. 

5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming.—Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool  and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.