Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course : Modern History (Pre & Mains) Integrated Approach Presented by: Ashna Sisodia
About Me Verified Educator at Unacademy From Chandigarh, India. An Educator at Unacademy since October 2016 Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains 2017 and scored 140 marks in Essay paper and 110 marks each in GS 2 and 3ao Scored 125+ in Prelims 2017 Political Science and International Relations Optional for Mains 2019 . Ashna Sisodia . CSE Btech from UIET, Courses Made so Far In this Course, Ashna Sisodia will comprehensively cover complete Poitical Sclence and nternational Relations in the form of stories and elaborately explain topics, which will be helptul in solving Mains Optional Paper in UPSC latest pattern. The Course will be conducted in English and the notes wil also be provided in English India Yearbook 2018 and Learning Maps quickly in 25 Lessons Nuclear security Doctrine IR & PSIR World History - Module 1 and The Hindu June MCQs The Hindu Weekly Killer Course June 2018 Crash Course on International Organizations and International Relations Teaching Ancient History and Answer Writing on Geography Mains https://unacademy.com/user/AshnaSisodia
New education system and rise of middle class
Orientalists - Anglicists Controversy British education system gave birth to controversy. 1 lakh rupees annually for the promotion of education in India. spent on the promotion of Sanskrit, person and ancient Indian literature or it should be spent of the pro Controversy surfaced itself in the committee of public Instruction This committee was constituted for deciding methods to impart education motion and learning of English language and western education. Progressive Indians were in favor of English language and western education Raja Ram Mohan Roy criticize the government decision of opening Calcutta Madrassa and Banaras Sanskrit college. . Anglicist were lead by Macaulay( Became head of the Committee in 1835) Raja Ram Mohan Roy supported Anglicist Orientalist were lead by James Government should spend this amount on the Princep promotion of native languages and Indian literature, these people were called orientalists Trevlyan said that his this money should be spent orn the promotion of English language and western education and literature and they were called anglicists
The orientalists argued . In the Charter act of 1813 AD RupeesEnglish language and western knowledge Anglicist forwarded their views in favour of Charter act of 1813 AD does not clearly mentioned on which languages and system of education, the annual amount of rupees 100000 would be spent. Knowledge of Western literature in English language would widen their vision. Native languages literary and scientificly are not developed It is not appropriate to give Sanskrit and Arabic the status of court languages. Knowledge of Western education would enable the Indians to earn their livelihood and find jobs in the company lakh annually was reserved for the promotion of native languages and literature. The customs, laws and the theology of the Hindus and Muslims have been interpreted in the Sanskrit and Persian. . . . Indians considered Sanskrit and Persian as the languages of their culture. Western education was adopted the age Old Madrasas and Path Shala would close down . . .
Macaulay gave his decision in favour of English language and western literature Macaulay wanted to produce which type of Indians who were Indian in blood and color but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect. He felt that Indians having knowledge of English and western science would be appointed on small jobs. . The British industrialist and merchants also influence them. . Christian missionaries were also in favour of English and western education. The group of prominent English man, including elphinston, held that English education, would make the Indian people gladly accept the British rule .
Development of education from 1835 To 1853 A.D .In 1835 AD Medical College was set up in Calcutta. During Lord Dalhousie reign first Engineering College in Roorkee and women college in Calcutta were established. . Thompson started area confined School system. . He grouped five villages into an area and open primary Schools there : a middle school in every Tehsil and School in Each district. To meet the expenses of the schools, 1% education cess was levied on land revenue tax. During this period Christian missionaries opened colleges such as Wilson College, Bombay, Christian College, Madras, St John College, Agra.
Charles wood's despatch 1854 A.D Principles of Indian education . Government should promote the study of Arts Commerce Sciences . Opening of private Institutions should be encouraged. It is the sacred duty of the government to provide the Indians with moral and material benefits. philosophy and the literature. Native languages should also be promoted Universities should be established in Big towns and cities. Intermediate and degree colleges should be affiliated to these Universities. High Schools, Anglo Vernacular schools, middle schools and primary schools should be placed under the colleges. School should be open to impart training to the teachers to be appointed at school. Department of education should be established in each province. Separate professional colleges should be opened for the study of law, medicine, Engineering. Special arrangements should be made for imparting education to women Syllabus should be framed for students, prescribed books should be written and printed. . . . .
Progressive education 1854-1882 A.D In 1856, Department of Education was set up in every province. . All schools and colleges in a province were controlled and supervised by the education department In 1857 universities were set up in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. - On the Senate of Calcutta University, there were 15 members out . of which 6 members were Indians. - In case of Bombay universities 29 members out of which 5 were Indians On the Senate of Madras University, out of 40 members three were Indians. In 1864 Government College Lahore was established which became Punjab University in 1882. . In 1879- Mohammeden anglo-oriental College, Aligarh was set up. According to an estimate in 1882, the number of colleges in India was 72 and the number of students had touched the figure of 26 lak h
Hunters Education Commission 1882 A.D. Education Commission consisting of 22 members was constituted. The chairman was Sir William Hunter. The objective was to access the progress of education after 1854. 1. The government should pay more attention to the promotion of . primary education The medium of teaching should be native language To meet the expenses of the schools, local taxes should be levied. Secondary Education should be divided into two parts - literary education and practical type of education. More assistance to private institutions All Secondary Schools should be handed over to private institutions Native schools should be given grant on the principle of payment by results Importance of physical education 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hunter Commission 1882 8. 10. More attention to the education of Muslims 11. Knowledge of morality and duties of a citizen 12. Suggestions about professional education, syllabus, textbooks, libraries and scholarships. Lord Ripon (1880-1884 AD)
Growth of education, 1882-1902 A.D Large number of schools and colleges were opened in different parts of the country Private Institutions, with the help of government took active participation in the spread of education. . In 1882 the number of students and primary school was 2200000 which goes to 32 lakh in 1901. Number of college student increased from 11501 to 23008. There were 145 art colleges and 46 law colleges in India. In spite of this the growth of education was not satisfactory Several villages were still without primary schools, 75% boys and more than 90% girls were still illiterate. ie .
Raletigh 's Commision, 1902 A.D. Its function was to study the condition of Indian universities and to recommend steps to improve the standard of University education oUniversity Senate and syndicates were reorganized and the number of members was reduced. Legal rights of old universities be widened and law universities be recognized as educational institutions. Jurisdiction of each University should be fixed. No new University should be opened in the present Affiliation conditions for colleges with University should be more strict Examination system should be reformed. Every college should have legally frame managing committee. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. Attention should be given to hostel and discipline of students. 9. The lowest age of matriculation should be 16 years. 10. There should be proper arrangement for libraries and laboratories in colleges 11. The rate of fee should be the lowest in colleges. 12. 2nd class intermediate colleges, affiliated with universities should be gradually closed
Resolution of 1913 A.D. Saddler Commission or Calcutta University Commission- in 1917, Lord chelmsford appointed a Commission under the chairmanship of Dr saddler 1. The school education should be for 12 years, the student shotuidulatio a dui sion in the university not after but after intermediate 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Immediate classes should be merged with Secondary Schools The control of Calcutta University should be handed over to the provincial government. To lighten the work load of Calcutta University, a separate University should be established in Dhaka. After intermediate, there should be 3 year degree course. Honours classes should be started for intelligent students. Separate board should be set up for women education. 7. Improvement in the examination system and promotion of 8. Upto High School, the medium of teaching should be professional education native language and then it should be switched over to English.
Sergeant plan of education, 1944 In 1944, the Advisory Council of central education board prepared a national education plan also known as Sergeant Plan. According to this plan, elementary schools and High Schools, Junior and senior basic schools were to be opened in the country and it was planned to give free and compulsory education to the children in the age group between 6 to 11 years. Another type of system of education for 6 years was adopted for the students of age group between 11 to 17 years. All students could not get admission in High Schools, only merit Scholars could get admission in High Schools, intermediate class was merged with the High Schools. . To introduce reforms in the field of education, Dr Radhakrishnan Commission, University Grants Commission and Kothari Commission was set up after 1947
Growth of press in India lustan Times THETIMES OF INDY War threat rece after Armitage visit rmitage raises hop
There was no printing press before the arrival of the English to India. So, the Indians did not know the importance of newspapers . Growth of press in India First of all, the Portuguese set up a printing press in 1557. The objective was to publish Christian literature and propagate Christianity. The Indians remained ignorant about the curtains of the press and the newspapers In 1684, the English East India company set up a printing press in Bombay. . . om of Press In 1776, the court of directors condemned William bolts for his al trade and he threatened to resign and bring out a newspaper but due to the reaction of the administrative machinery he failed to do so. Hickky pioneer of the press in India - James Augustus Hickky. In 1780, he started bringing out Bengal gazette, a weekly newspaper Soon after the Calcutta gazette and the Indian world war brought out. These newspapers were published in English. Their editors were English and they were meant for their English readers in India. He criticized Mr Hastings and governor generals policies. He was arrested in 1782 and his newspaper was banned. He was supporter of the freedom of the press.
Press under Cornwallis: he adopteda conservative policy towards the press. He could not tolerate editor, Mr. Duane's Views published in the Indian world, he was arrested and humiliated. HICK T' BENGAL GAZETTE 0R HB ORIGINAL In 1769 A.D. Mekenly the editor of the Telegraph' published some charges against some government servants, he was also humiliated. The editor of the Calcutta Gazette hard to face the rat as he had made a mention of the correspondence between the court of directors and the French Republic in his newspaper. 59 From Satardasy March d to Saturday ch No. VI Press under Wellesley and Minto : in 1799 Wellesley passed the Press Act to impose censorship on the newspapers. According to the act - editors of the newspaper had to publish their names on the newspapers, the government officials would sensor the matter before being printed in the paper. . Lord Minto also enforced the restrictions rigidly and those who violated the laws was severely punished.
. Vernacular Press Act 1878 Lord lytton was appointed the Governor General of India. He was an imperialist. He had feelings of Contempt for the Indians. - His foolish Afghan Policy was condemned and criticized by the Indian newspapers. Therefore, he decided to impose restrictions on the papers being published in native languages In 1878 he got passed Vernacular Press Act by a meeting of the Legislative Council. The Indian Nationalists called it a gagging act. 1878-Imposition of the Vernacular Press Act by Lord Lyton .The law was imposed only on the regional newspapers of India and its clauses made it one of the most unpopulous and controversial press law to be ever imposed on Indian Press. The clauses of it included: - This act try to suppress the freedom of expression of the - According to this act, the magistrates had been L.Mandatory signing of bonds by the printers and publishers dedaring of no objectionable publication failing which may result in confiscation of the press Indians. empowered to seek a guarantee or a security from the publishers and printers of native newspapers. The government was empowered to warn the publishers or confiscate their surety on finding objectionable matter in their newspapers. According to Indians, the Act was based on the policy of discrimination, the restrictions were imposed on papers published in native language only not on the papers published in Englush. Middle class Elite gave up the profession of journalism 2.The printers and publishers would not be allowed to approach the court for help 3.Issuance of search warrants to enable govt. ofiicials to earch any newspaper premise 4.Deposition of Rs.10,000 while signing the bond 1881 the law was repealed by Lord Rippon
Indian states protection act of 1934 . Political trends of Indian Press . Second world war and the Press X: Press Agencies - 1948, The Press trust of India . The role of Indian Press before Independence *. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA PRESS TRUST OF INDA
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