Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course : Modern History (Pre & Mains) Integrated Approach Presented by: Ashna Sisodia
About Me Verified Educator at Unacademy From Chandigarh, India. An Educator at Unacademy since October 2016 Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains 2017 and scored 140 marks in Essay paper and 110 marks each in GS 2 and 3ao Scored 125+ in Prelims 2017 Political Science and International Relations Optional for Mains 2019 . Ashna Sisodia . CSE Btech from UIET, Courses Made so Far In this Course, Ashna Sisodia will comprehensively cover complete Poitical Sclence and nternational Relations in the form of stories and elaborately explain topics, which will be helptul in solving Mains Optional Paper in UPSC latest pattern. The Course will be conducted in English and the notes wil also be provided in English India Yearbook 2018 and Learning Maps quickly in 25 Lessons Nuclear security Doctrine IR & PSIR World History - Module 1 and The Hindu June MCQs The Hindu Weekly Killer Course June 2018 Crash Course on International Organizations and International Relations Teaching Ancient History and Answer Writing on Geography Mains https://unacademy.com/user/AshnaSisodia
New education system and rise of middle class
Early efforts of East India Company In the beginning the company did not pay any attention to the progress of education, because the company was busy in establishing its empire in Bengal and other parts of India. Soon after the government established political position and became strong then they started giving attention to education. in 1781 A.D. Warren Hastings opened a Madrasa in Calcutta, where various languages are taught. The medium of instructions was Persian. In 1785 Sir William Jones with the help of governor journal established Bengal Asiatic Society. Its function was to encourage historical research. In 1791 the British resident at Banaras open Banaras Sanskrit college. The aim of this college was to impart education to the Hindus in the subjects of law. . . . In 1800 Lord Wellesley set up Fort William college to provide education to the Civil servants of the company but in 1802 this college was closed. Bible was translated into 26 native languages.
Spread of education between 1813 to 1834 A.D Indians wanted a type of education which could help them in earning their livelihood Started imparting Western knowledge in English medium. English became the symbol of high class in the society Raja Ram Mohan Roy became supporter of English language and western culture. Elphinston opened in Poona and Bombay in 1834 A.D.
Orientalists - Anglicists Controversy British education system gave birth to controversy. 1 lakh rupees annually for the promotion of education in India. spent on the promotion of Sanskrit, person and ancient Indian literature or it should be spent of the pro Controversy surfaced itself in the committee of public Instruction This committee was constituted for deciding methods to impart education motion and learning of English language and western education. Progressive Indians were in favor of English language and western education Raja Ram Mohan Roy criticize the government decision of opening Calcutta Madrassa and Banaras Sanskrit college. . Anglicist were lead by Macaulay( Became head of the Committee in 1835) Raja Ram Mohan Roy supported Anglicist Orientalist were lead by James Government should spend this amount on the Princep promotion of native languages and Indian literature, these people were called orientalists Trevlyan said that his this money should be spent orn the promotion of English language and western education and literature and they were called anglicists
The orientalists argued . In the Charter act of 1813 AD RupeesEnglish language and western knowledge Anglicist forwarded their views in favour of Charter act of 1813 AD does not clearly mentioned on which languages and system of education, the annual amount of rupees 100000 would be spent. Knowledge of Western literature in English language would widen their vision. Native languages literary and scientificly are not developed It is not appropriate to give Sanskrit and Arabic the status of court languages. Knowledge of Western education would enable the Indians to earn their livelihood and find jobs in the company lakh annually was reserved for the promotion of native languages and literature. The customs, laws and the theology of the Hindus and Muslims have been interpreted in the Sanskrit and Persian. . . . Indians considered Sanskrit and Persian as the languages of their culture. Western education was adopted the age Old Madrasas and Path Shala would close down . . .
Macaulay gave his decision in favour of English language and western literature Macaulay wanted to produce which type of Indians who were Indian in blood and color but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect. He felt that Indians having knowledge of English and western science would be appointed on small jobs. . The British industrialist and merchants also influence them. . Christian missionaries were also in favour of English and western education. The group of prominent English man, including elphinston, held that English education, would make the Indian people gladly accept the British rule .
Development of education from 1835 To 1853 A.D .In 1835 AD Medical College was set up in Calcutta. During Lord Dalhousie reign first Engineering College in Roorkee and women college in Calcutta were established. . Thompson started area confined School system. . He grouped five villages into an area and open primary Schools there : a middle school in every Tehsil and School in Each district. To meet the expenses of the schools, 1% education cess was levied on land revenue tax. During this period Christian missionaries opened colleges such as Wilson College, Bombay, Christian College, Madras, St John College, Agra.
Charles wood's despatch 1854 A.D Principles of Indian education . Government should promote the study of Arts Commerce Sciences . Opening of private Institutions should be encouraged. It is the sacred duty of the government to provide the Indians with moral and material benefits. philosophy and the literature. Native languages should also be promoted Universities should be established in Big towns and cities. Intermediate and degree colleges should be affiliated to these Universities. High Schools, Anglo Vernacular schools, middle schools and primary schools should be placed under the colleges. School should be open to impart training to the teachers to be appointed at school. Department of education should be established in each province. Separate professional colleges should be opened for the study of law, medicine, Engineering. Special arrangements should be made for imparting education to women Syllabus should be framed for students, prescribed books should be written and printed. . . . .
Progressive education 1854-1882 A.D In 1856, Department of Education was set up in every province. . All schools and colleges in a province were controlled and supervised by the education department In 1857 universities were set up in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. - On the Senate of Calcutta University, there were 15 members out . of which 6 members were Indians. - In case of Bombay universities 29 members out of which 5 were Indians On the Senate of Madras University, out of 40 members three were Indians. In 1864 Government College Lahore was established which became Punjab University in 1882. . In 1879- Mohammeden anglo-oriental College, Aligarh was set up. According to an estimate in 1882, the number of colleges in India was 72 and the number of students had touched the figure of 26 lak h
Raletigh 's Commision, 1902 A.D. Its function was to study the condition of Indian universities and to recommend steps to improve the standard of University education oUniversity Senate and syndicates were reorganized and the number of members was reduced. Legal rights of old universities be widened and law universities be recognized as educational institutions. Jurisdiction of each University should be fixed. No new University should be opened in the present Affiliation conditions for colleges with University should be more strict Examination system should be reformed. Every college should have legally frame managing committee. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. Attention should be given to hostel and discipline of students. 9. The lowest age of matriculation should be 16 years. 10. There should be proper arrangement for libraries and laboratories in colleges 11. The rate of fee should be the lowest in colleges. 12. 2nd class intermediate colleges, affiliated with universities should be gradually closed
Growth of education between 1919 and 1935 A.D The act of 1919 setup dual system of government in provinces and the subject of education was placed on the concurrent list. The provincial system of education was handed over to Indian minister Due to lack of funds and Limited powers, the Indian Ministers were unable to implement their plans for the growth of education. . . In 1920, Dhaka and Lucknow universities were established In 1921, Allahabad University and in 1922, Delhi University came into being. In 1922, there were 22 universities in the country and their number grew
Sergeant plan of education, 1944 In 1944, the Advisory Council of central education board prepared a national education plan also known as Sergeant Plan. According to this plan, elementary schools and High Schools, Junior and senior basic schools were to be opened in the country and it was planned to give free and compulsory education to the children in the age group between 6 to 11 years. Another type of system of education for 6 years was adopted for the students of age group between 11 to 17 years. All students could not get admission in High Schools, only merit Scholars could get admission in High Schools, intermediate class was merged with the High Schools. . To introduce reforms in the field of education, Dr Radhakrishnan Commission, University Grants Commission and Kothari Commission was set up after 1947
In 1947, the system of education was not free from flaws, there were many causes- . The government spent a little money on education -Primary education was not made free and compulsory as a result 90% people remained illiterate Women education was ignored Promotion of native languages and native literature was ignored. No efforts were made for setting up of science, technical, medical engineering and Commerce institutes. The aim of British Education was to produce clerks who could be employed on Petty jobs.
YEAR 1854 1882 1902 1917 Chelmsford 1923 Reading GOVERNOR Dalhousie Ripon Curzon COMMISSION Charles Wood Dispatch Hunter Commission Raleigh Commission Saddler Commission Inchcape Commission Hartog Committee (primary edu.) Lindsay Commission Sergeant Commission 1929 Irvin Irwin 1929 1944 Wavell
Lord Hastings and press - he was in favour of granting freedom to press. He did not like unjust restrictions put on the press. He abolished censorship on the press. He wanted that fresh should act as a responsible Institution. In 1818 AD, he framed some laws regarding press 1. Newspapers were not allowed to write anything about governor general, the members of the Council, judges and the conduct of Calcutta bishop. 2. They could not criticize political activities of the Government of India. 4. They could not write about british intervention in Indian religions government of India to enquire into the newspapers in India and y were not allowed to write about the activities of the Indian government in England. . Suggestions of Thomas Munro - he was appointed by the submit a detailed report on it. His opinion was that the freedom of press in India would not have any adverse effect on Europeans in India, however it can affect the Indians.
. Vernacular Press Act 1878 Lord lytton was appointed the Governor General of India. He was an imperialist. He had feelings of Contempt for the Indians. - His foolish Afghan Policy was condemned and criticized by the Indian newspapers. Therefore, he decided to impose restrictions on the papers being published in native languages In 1878 he got passed Vernacular Press Act by a meeting of the Legislative Council. The Indian Nationalists called it a gagging act. 1878-Imposition of the Vernacular Press Act by Lord Lyton .The law was imposed only on the regional newspapers of India and its clauses made it one of the most unpopulous and controversial press law to be ever imposed on Indian Press. The clauses of it included: - This act try to suppress the freedom of expression of the - According to this act, the magistrates had been L.Mandatory signing of bonds by the printers and publishers dedaring of no objectionable publication failing which may result in confiscation of the press Indians. empowered to seek a guarantee or a security from the publishers and printers of native newspapers. The government was empowered to warn the publishers or confiscate their surety on finding objectionable matter in their newspapers. According to Indians, the Act was based on the policy of discrimination, the restrictions were imposed on papers published in native language only not on the papers published in Englush. Middle class Elite gave up the profession of journalism 2.The printers and publishers would not be allowed to approach the court for help 3.Issuance of search warrants to enable govt. ofiicials to earch any newspaper premise 4.Deposition of Rs.10,000 while signing the bond 1881 the law was repealed by Lord Rippon
Indian states protection act of 1934 . Political trends of Indian Press . Second world war and the Press X: Press Agencies - 1948, The Press trust of India . The role of Indian Press before Independence *. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA PRESS TRUST OF INDA
FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF NEW SOCIAL CLASSES Intelligentsia and middle class Middle class traders and industrialists Middle class- professors,doctors,lawyers.journalists Labourers Zamindars Peasants and tenants THEVICTORIAN ERA AND THEINDUSTRIAL REVOLU .
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