Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course : Modern History (Pre & Mains) Integrated Approach Presented by: Ashna Sisodia
About Me Verified Educator at Unacademy From Chandigarh, India. An Educator at Unacademy since October 2016 Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains 2017 and scored 140 marks in Essay paper and 110 marks each in GS 2 and 3ao Scored 125+ in Prelims 2017 Political Science and International Relations Optional for Mains 2019 . Ashna Sisodia . CSE Btech from UIET, Courses Made so Far In this Course, Ashna Sisodia will comprehensively cover complete Poitical Sclence and nternational Relations in the form of stories and elaborately explain topics, which will be helptul in solving Mains Optional Paper in UPSC latest pattern. The Course will be conducted in English and the notes wil also be provided in English India Yearbook 2018 and Learning Maps quickly in 25 Lessons Nuclear security Doctrine IR & PSIR World History - Module 1 and The Hindu June MCQs The Hindu Weekly Killer Course June 2018 Crash Course on International Organizations and International Relations Teaching Ancient History and Answer Writing on Geography Mains https://unacademy.com/user/AshnaSisodia
New education system and rise of middle class
Progressive education 1854-1882 A.D In 1856, Department of Education was set up in every province. . All schools and colleges in a province were controlled and supervised by the education department In 1857 universities were set up in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. - On the Senate of Calcutta University, there were 15 members out . of which 6 members were Indians. - In case of Bombay universities 29 members out of which 5 were Indians On the Senate of Madras University, out of 40 members three were Indians. In 1864 Government College Lahore was established which became Punjab University in 1882. . In 1879- Mohammeden anglo-oriental College, Aligarh was set up. According to an estimate in 1882, the number of colleges in India was 72 and the number of students had touched the figure of 26 lak h
Hunters Education Commission 1882 A.D. Education Commission consisting of 22 members was constituted. The chairman was Sir William Hunter. The objective was to access the progress of education after 1854. 1. The government should pay more attention to the promotion of . primary education The medium of teaching should be native language To meet the expenses of the schools, local taxes should be levied. Secondary Education should be divided into two parts - literary education and practical type of education. More assistance to private institutions All Secondary Schools should be handed over to private institutions Native schools should be given grant on the principle of payment by results Importance of physical education 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hunter Commission 1882 8. 10. More attention to the education of Muslims 11. Knowledge of morality and duties of a citizen 12. Suggestions about professional education, syllabus, textbooks, libraries and scholarships. Lord Ripon (1880-1884 AD)
Growth of education, 1882-1902 A.D Large number of schools and colleges were opened in different parts of the country Private Institutions, with the help of government took active participation in the spread of education. . In 1882 the number of students and primary school was 2200000 which goes to 32 lakh in 1901. Number of college student increased from 11501 to 23008. There were 145 art colleges and 46 law colleges in India. In spite of this the growth of education was not satisfactory Several villages were still without primary schools, 75% boys and more than 90% girls were still illiterate. ie .
Raletigh 's Commision, 1902 A.D. Its function was to study the condition of Indian universities and to recommend steps to improve the standard of University education oUniversity Senate and syndicates were reorganized and the number of members was reduced. Legal rights of old universities be widened and law universities be recognized as educational institutions. Jurisdiction of each University should be fixed. No new University should be opened in the present Affiliation conditions for colleges with University should be more strict Examination system should be reformed. Every college should have legally frame managing committee. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. Attention should be given to hostel and discipline of students. 9. The lowest age of matriculation should be 16 years. 10. There should be proper arrangement for libraries and laboratories in colleges 11. The rate of fee should be the lowest in colleges. 12. 2nd class intermediate colleges, affiliated with universities should be gradually closed
Indian universities act 1904 A.D. 1. Minimum number of students on the university Senate was fixed at 50 2. 3. and maximum at 100. The syndicate in universities was originally recognized, the number of its members was fixed at 7 to 15. Powers of universities were increased. They were assigned the duties of teaching post graduate classes, appointment of teachers and research on different subjects. Management of universities were entrusted with the responsibility of raising the standard of education, framing of syllabus, improving the examination system and providing basic amenities to the students. Degree classes would remain in the colleges Government had the right to appoint vice chancellors of universities. Right to define the jurisdiction of universities was given to governor general and his Council. The university had to seek permission from the government regarding the affiliation and disaffiliation of a college. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Resolution of 1913 A.D. Saddler Commission or Calcutta University Commission- in 1917, Lord chelmsford appointed a Commission under the chairmanship of Dr saddler 1. The school education should be for 12 years, the student shotuidulatio a dui sion in the university not after but after intermediate 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Immediate classes should be merged with Secondary Schools The control of Calcutta University should be handed over to the provincial government. To lighten the work load of Calcutta University, a separate University should be established in Dhaka. After intermediate, there should be 3 year degree course. Honours classes should be started for intelligent students. Separate board should be set up for women education. 7. Improvement in the examination system and promotion of 8. Upto High School, the medium of teaching should be professional education native language and then it should be switched over to English.
Growth of education between 1919 and 1935 A.D The act of 1919 setup dual system of government in provinces and the subject of education was placed on the concurrent list. The provincial system of education was handed over to Indian minister Due to lack of funds and Limited powers, the Indian Ministers were unable to implement their plans for the growth of education. . . In 1920, Dhaka and Lucknow universities were established In 1921, Allahabad University and in 1922, Delhi University came into being. In 1922, there were 22 universities in the country and their number grew
Wardha scheme of education Mahatma Gandhi was dissatisfied with the present system of education. It was expensive as well as it was not suitable to the environment of the children. Therefore, in 1936 a plan of basic education system was formulated. It is known as Wardha scheme of education 1. Students would be imported teachings in their own native WARDHA SCHEME languages Training in handicrafts Primary education to 7 to 14 years would be compulsory and free. Medium of instructions should be the mother tongue of the child Expenditure of the school should be made by selling the article prepared in the school. Moral values should be developed in the character of students. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Sergeant plan of education, 1944 In 1944, the Advisory Council of central education board prepared a national education plan also known as Sergeant Plan. According to this plan, elementary schools and High Schools, Junior and senior basic schools were to be opened in the country and it was planned to give free and compulsory education to the children in the age group between 6 to 11 years. Another type of system of education for 6 years was adopted for the students of age group between 11 to 17 years. All students could not get admission in High Schools, only merit Scholars could get admission in High Schools, intermediate class was merged with the High Schools. . To introduce reforms in the field of education, Dr Radhakrishnan Commission, University Grants Commission and Kothari Commission was set up after 1947
YEAR 1854 1882 1902 1917 Chelmsford 1923 Reading GOVERNOR Dalhousie Ripon Curzon COMMISSION Charles Wood Dispatch Hunter Commission Raleigh Commission Saddler Commission Inchcape Commission Hartog Committee (primary edu.) Lindsay Commission Sergeant Commission 1929 Irvin Irwin 1929 1944 Wavell
Press under Cornwallis: he adopteda conservative policy towards the press. He could not tolerate editor, Mr. Duane's Views published in the Indian world, he was arrested and humiliated. HICK T' BENGAL GAZETTE 0R HB ORIGINAL In 1769 A.D. Mekenly the editor of the Telegraph' published some charges against some government servants, he was also humiliated. The editor of the Calcutta Gazette hard to face the rat as he had made a mention of the correspondence between the court of directors and the French Republic in his newspaper. 59 From Satardasy March d to Saturday ch No. VI Press under Wellesley and Minto : in 1799 Wellesley passed the Press Act to impose censorship on the newspapers. According to the act - editors of the newspaper had to publish their names on the newspapers, the government officials would sensor the matter before being printed in the paper. . Lord Minto also enforced the restrictions rigidly and those who violated the laws was severely punished.
Adams and Amherst- Repressive policy towards the press. Charles Metcalfe's Liberal policy . . Licensing act of 1857 A.D . Press Act of 1867 A.D . Arrival of new news papers, 1857 1877 Vigor Pills Som Prakash in Bangla by Ishwar Chander Vidya Sagar Amrit Bazar Patrika bangla weekly Ghosh brothers 1861 -Ti 1865 - Pioneer- Allahabad 1868 Madras Mail Madras 1875- Statesman - Calcutta 1876 - civil and military Gazette- Lahore imes of India Bombay
. Vernacular Press Act 1878 Lord lytton was appointed the Governor General of India. He was an imperialist. He had feelings of Contempt for the Indians. - His foolish Afghan Policy was condemned and criticized by the Indian newspapers. Therefore, he decided to impose restrictions on the papers being published in native languages In 1878 he got passed Vernacular Press Act by a meeting of the Legislative Council. The Indian Nationalists called it a gagging act. 1878-Imposition of the Vernacular Press Act by Lord Lyton .The law was imposed only on the regional newspapers of India and its clauses made it one of the most unpopulous and controversial press law to be ever imposed on Indian Press. The clauses of it included: - This act try to suppress the freedom of expression of the - According to this act, the magistrates had been L.Mandatory signing of bonds by the printers and publishers dedaring of no objectionable publication failing which may result in confiscation of the press Indians. empowered to seek a guarantee or a security from the publishers and printers of native newspapers. The government was empowered to warn the publishers or confiscate their surety on finding objectionable matter in their newspapers. According to Indians, the Act was based on the policy of discrimination, the restrictions were imposed on papers published in native language only not on the papers published in Englush. Middle class Elite gave up the profession of journalism 2.The printers and publishers would not be allowed to approach the court for help 3.Issuance of search warrants to enable govt. ofiicials to earch any newspaper premise 4.Deposition of Rs.10,000 while signing the bond 1881 the law was repealed by Lord Rippon
Growth of press between 1881-1907 A.D. - press was quite free. . Hindu Patriot and Poona Sarvajanik Sabha highlighted the just demands of the Indians. Surendernath Banerjee propogated nationalist ideas against British rule. Dyal singh Majithia started The tribune in English. Bal Gangadhar Tilak started "Kesari" in Marathi and Maratha in English. Ghosh Brothers- Yugantar and Vande Matram . Newspapers Act 1908 A.D . The Indian Press Act, 1910 A.D. not sufficient to stop anti govt protests. It gave more clarification about objectionable material. During First world war (1914-1918), this act was strictly enforced. Press act of 1931 Foreign Relations Act 1932 A.D. . .
Indian states protection act of 1934 . Political trends of Indian Press . Second world war and the Press X: Press Agencies - 1948, The Press trust of India . The role of Indian Press before Independence *. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA PRESS TRUST OF INDA