Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course : Modern History (Pre & Mains) Integrated Approach Presented by: Ashna Sisodia
About Me Verified Educator at Unacademy From Chandigarh, India. An Educator at Unacademy since October 2016 Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains 2017 and scored 140 marks in Essay paper and 110 marks each in GS 2 and 3ao Scored 125+ in Prelims 2017 Political Science and International Relations Optional for Mains 2019 . Ashna Sisodia . CSE Btech from UIET, Courses Made so Far In this Course, Ashna Sisodia will comprehensively cover complete Poitical Sclence and nternational Relations in the form of stories and elaborately explain topics, which will be helptul in solving Mains Optional Paper in UPSC latest pattern. The Course will be conducted in English and the notes wil also be provided in English India Yearbook 2018 and Learning Maps quickly in 25 Lessons Nuclear security Doctrine IR & PSIR World History - Module 1 and The Hindu June MCQs The Hindu Weekly Killer Course June 2018 Crash Course on International Organizations and International Relations Teaching Ancient History and Answer Writing on Geography Mains https://unacademy.com/user/AshnaSisodia
New education system and rise of middle class
Development of education from 1835 To 1853 A.D .In 1835 AD Medical College was set up in Calcutta. During Lord Dalhousie reign first Engineering College in Roorkee and women college in Calcutta were established. . Thompson started area confined School system. . He grouped five villages into an area and open primary Schools there : a middle school in every Tehsil and School in Each district. To meet the expenses of the schools, 1% education cess was levied on land revenue tax. During this period Christian missionaries opened colleges such as Wilson College, Bombay, Christian College, Madras, St John College, Agra.
Charles wood's despatch 1854 A.D Principles of Indian education . Government should promote the study of Arts Commerce Sciences . Opening of private Institutions should be encouraged. It is the sacred duty of the government to provide the Indians with moral and material benefits. philosophy and the literature. Native languages should also be promoted Universities should be established in Big towns and cities. Intermediate and degree colleges should be affiliated to these Universities. High Schools, Anglo Vernacular schools, middle schools and primary schools should be placed under the colleges. School should be open to impart training to the teachers to be appointed at school. Department of education should be established in each province. Separate professional colleges should be opened for the study of law, medicine, Engineering. Special arrangements should be made for imparting education to women Syllabus should be framed for students, prescribed books should be written and printed. . . . .
Progressive education 1854-1882 A.D In 1856, Department of Education was set up in every province. . All schools and colleges in a province were controlled and supervised by the education department In 1857 universities were set up in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. - On the Senate of Calcutta University, there were 15 members out . of which 6 members were Indians. - In case of Bombay universities 29 members out of which 5 were Indians On the Senate of Madras University, out of 40 members three were Indians. In 1864 Government College Lahore was established which became Punjab University in 1882. . In 1879- Mohammeden anglo-oriental College, Aligarh was set up. According to an estimate in 1882, the number of colleges in India was 72 and the number of students had touched the figure of 26 lak h
Hunters Education Commission 1882 A.D. Education Commission consisting of 22 members was constituted. The chairman was Sir William Hunter. The objective was to access the progress of education after 1854. 1. The government should pay more attention to the promotion of . primary education The medium of teaching should be native language To meet the expenses of the schools, local taxes should be levied. Secondary Education should be divided into two parts - literary education and practical type of education. More assistance to private institutions All Secondary Schools should be handed over to private institutions Native schools should be given grant on the principle of payment by results Importance of physical education 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hunter Commission 1882 8. 10. More attention to the education of Muslims 11. Knowledge of morality and duties of a citizen 12. Suggestions about professional education, syllabus, textbooks, libraries and scholarships. Lord Ripon (1880-1884 AD)
Growth of education, 1882-1902 A.D Large number of schools and colleges were opened in different parts of the country Private Institutions, with the help of government took active participation in the spread of education. . In 1882 the number of students and primary school was 2200000 which goes to 32 lakh in 1901. Number of college student increased from 11501 to 23008. There were 145 art colleges and 46 law colleges in India. In spite of this the growth of education was not satisfactory Several villages were still without primary schools, 75% boys and more than 90% girls were still illiterate. ie .
Raletigh 's Commision, 1902 A.D. Its function was to study the condition of Indian universities and to recommend steps to improve the standard of University education oUniversity Senate and syndicates were reorganized and the number of members was reduced. Legal rights of old universities be widened and law universities be recognized as educational institutions. Jurisdiction of each University should be fixed. No new University should be opened in the present Affiliation conditions for colleges with University should be more strict Examination system should be reformed. Every college should have legally frame managing committee. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. Attention should be given to hostel and discipline of students. 9. The lowest age of matriculation should be 16 years. 10. There should be proper arrangement for libraries and laboratories in colleges 11. The rate of fee should be the lowest in colleges. 12. 2nd class intermediate colleges, affiliated with universities should be gradually closed
Indian universities act 1904 A.D. 1. Minimum number of students on the university Senate was fixed at 50 2. 3. and maximum at 100. The syndicate in universities was originally recognized, the number of its members was fixed at 7 to 15. Powers of universities were increased. They were assigned the duties of teaching post graduate classes, appointment of teachers and research on different subjects. Management of universities were entrusted with the responsibility of raising the standard of education, framing of syllabus, improving the examination system and providing basic amenities to the students. Degree classes would remain in the colleges Government had the right to appoint vice chancellors of universities. Right to define the jurisdiction of universities was given to governor general and his Council. The university had to seek permission from the government regarding the affiliation and disaffiliation of a college. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Resolution of 1913 A.D. Saddler Commission or Calcutta University Commission- in 1917, Lord chelmsford appointed a Commission under the chairmanship of Dr saddler 1. The school education should be for 12 years, the student shotuidulatio a dui sion in the university not after but after intermediate 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Immediate classes should be merged with Secondary Schools The control of Calcutta University should be handed over to the provincial government. To lighten the work load of Calcutta University, a separate University should be established in Dhaka. After intermediate, there should be 3 year degree course. Honours classes should be started for intelligent students. Separate board should be set up for women education. 7. Improvement in the examination system and promotion of 8. Upto High School, the medium of teaching should be professional education native language and then it should be switched over to English.
Sergeant plan of education, 1944 In 1944, the Advisory Council of central education board prepared a national education plan also known as Sergeant Plan. According to this plan, elementary schools and High Schools, Junior and senior basic schools were to be opened in the country and it was planned to give free and compulsory education to the children in the age group between 6 to 11 years. Another type of system of education for 6 years was adopted for the students of age group between 11 to 17 years. All students could not get admission in High Schools, only merit Scholars could get admission in High Schools, intermediate class was merged with the High Schools. . To introduce reforms in the field of education, Dr Radhakrishnan Commission, University Grants Commission and Kothari Commission was set up after 1947
Growth of press in India lustan Times THETIMES OF INDY War threat rece after Armitage visit rmitage raises hop
Lord Hastings and press - he was in favour of granting freedom to press. He did not like unjust restrictions put on the press. He abolished censorship on the press. He wanted that fresh should act as a responsible Institution. In 1818 AD, he framed some laws regarding press 1. Newspapers were not allowed to write anything about governor general, the members of the Council, judges and the conduct of Calcutta bishop. 2. They could not criticize political activities of the Government of India. 4. They could not write about british intervention in Indian religions government of India to enquire into the newspapers in India and y were not allowed to write about the activities of the Indian government in England. . Suggestions of Thomas Munro - he was appointed by the submit a detailed report on it. His opinion was that the freedom of press in India would not have any adverse effect on Europeans in India, however it can affect the Indians.
Adams and Amherst- Repressive policy towards the press. Charles Metcalfe's Liberal policy . . Licensing act of 1857 A.D . Press Act of 1867 A.D . Arrival of new news papers, 1857 1877 Vigor Pills Som Prakash in Bangla by Ishwar Chander Vidya Sagar Amrit Bazar Patrika bangla weekly Ghosh brothers 1861 -Ti 1865 - Pioneer- Allahabad 1868 Madras Mail Madras 1875- Statesman - Calcutta 1876 - civil and military Gazette- Lahore imes of India Bombay
FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF NEW SOCIAL CLASSES Intelligentsia and middle class Middle class traders and industrialists Middle class- professors,doctors,lawyers.journalists Labourers Zamindars Peasants and tenants THEVICTORIAN ERA AND THEINDUSTRIAL REVOLU .