Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course : Modern History (Pre & Mains) Integrated Approach Presented by: Ashna Sisodia
About Me Verified Educator at Unacademy From Chandigarh, India. An Educator at Unacademy since October 2016 Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains 2017 and scored 140 marks in Essay paper and 110 marks each in GS 2 and 3ao Scored 125+ in Prelims 2017 Political Science and International Relations Optional for Mains 2019 . Ashna Sisodia . CSE Btech from UIET, Courses Made so Far In this Course, Ashna Sisodia will comprehensively cover complete Poitical Sclence and nternational Relations in the form of stories and elaborately explain topics, which will be helptul in solving Mains Optional Paper in UPSC latest pattern. The Course will be conducted in English and the notes wil also be provided in English India Yearbook 2018 and Learning Maps quickly in 25 Lessons Nuclear security Doctrine IR & PSIR World History - Module 1 and The Hindu June MCQs The Hindu Weekly Killer Course June 2018 Crash Course on International Organizations and International Relations Teaching Ancient History and Answer Writing on Geography Mains https://unacademy.com/user/AshnaSisodia
New education system and rise of middle class
Growth of press in India lustan Times THETIMES OF INDY War threat rece after Armitage visit rmitage raises hop
There was no printing press before the arrival of the English to India. So, the Indians did not know the importance of newspapers . Growth of press in India First of all, the Portuguese set up a printing press in 1557. The objective was to publish Christian literature and propagate Christianity. The Indians remained ignorant about the curtains of the press and the newspapers In 1684, the English East India company set up a printing press in Bombay. . . om of Press In 1776, the court of directors condemned William bolts for his al trade and he threatened to resign and bring out a newspaper but due to the reaction of the administrative machinery he failed to do so. Hickky pioneer of the press in India - James Augustus Hickky. In 1780, he started bringing out Bengal gazette, a weekly newspaper Soon after the Calcutta gazette and the Indian world war brought out. These newspapers were published in English. Their editors were English and they were meant for their English readers in India. He criticized Mr Hastings and governor generals policies. He was arrested in 1782 and his newspaper was banned. He was supporter of the freedom of the press.
Press under Cornwallis: he adopteda conservative policy towards the press. He could not tolerate editor, Mr. Duane's Views published in the Indian world, he was arrested and humiliated. HICK T' BENGAL GAZETTE 0R HB ORIGINAL In 1769 A.D. Mekenly the editor of the Telegraph' published some charges against some government servants, he was also humiliated. The editor of the Calcutta Gazette hard to face the rat as he had made a mention of the correspondence between the court of directors and the French Republic in his newspaper. 59 From Satardasy March d to Saturday ch No. VI Press under Wellesley and Minto : in 1799 Wellesley passed the Press Act to impose censorship on the newspapers. According to the act - editors of the newspaper had to publish their names on the newspapers, the government officials would sensor the matter before being printed in the paper. . Lord Minto also enforced the restrictions rigidly and those who violated the laws was severely punished.
Lord Hastings and press - he was in favour of granting freedom to press. He did not like unjust restrictions put on the press. He abolished censorship on the press. He wanted that fresh should act as a responsible Institution. In 1818 AD, he framed some laws regarding press 1. Newspapers were not allowed to write anything about governor general, the members of the Council, judges and the conduct of Calcutta bishop. 2. They could not criticize political activities of the Government of India. 4. They could not write about british intervention in Indian religions government of India to enquire into the newspapers in India and y were not allowed to write about the activities of the Indian government in England. . Suggestions of Thomas Munro - he was appointed by the submit a detailed report on it. His opinion was that the freedom of press in India would not have any adverse effect on Europeans in India, however it can affect the Indians.
Adams and Amherst- Repressive policy towards the press. Charles Metcalfe's Liberal policy . . Licensing act of 1857 A.D . Press Act of 1867 A.D . Arrival of new news papers, 1857 1877 Vigor Pills Som Prakash in Bangla by Ishwar Chander Vidya Sagar Amrit Bazar Patrika bangla weekly Ghosh brothers 1861 -Ti 1865 - Pioneer- Allahabad 1868 Madras Mail Madras 1875- Statesman - Calcutta 1876 - civil and military Gazette- Lahore imes of India Bombay
. Vernacular Press Act 1878 Lord lytton was appointed the Governor General of India. He was an imperialist. He had feelings of Contempt for the Indians. - His foolish Afghan Policy was condemned and criticized by the Indian newspapers. Therefore, he decided to impose restrictions on the papers being published in native languages In 1878 he got passed Vernacular Press Act by a meeting of the Legislative Council. The Indian Nationalists called it a gagging act. 1878-Imposition of the Vernacular Press Act by Lord Lyton .The law was imposed only on the regional newspapers of India and its clauses made it one of the most unpopulous and controversial press law to be ever imposed on Indian Press. The clauses of it included: - This act try to suppress the freedom of expression of the - According to this act, the magistrates had been L.Mandatory signing of bonds by the printers and publishers dedaring of no objectionable publication failing which may result in confiscation of the press Indians. empowered to seek a guarantee or a security from the publishers and printers of native newspapers. The government was empowered to warn the publishers or confiscate their surety on finding objectionable matter in their newspapers. According to Indians, the Act was based on the policy of discrimination, the restrictions were imposed on papers published in native language only not on the papers published in Englush. Middle class Elite gave up the profession of journalism 2.The printers and publishers would not be allowed to approach the court for help 3.Issuance of search warrants to enable govt. ofiicials to earch any newspaper premise 4.Deposition of Rs.10,000 while signing the bond 1881 the law was repealed by Lord Rippon
Growth of press between 1881-1907 A.D. - press was quite free. . Hindu Patriot and Poona Sarvajanik Sabha highlighted the just demands of the Indians. Surendernath Banerjee propogated nationalist ideas against British rule. Dyal singh Majithia started The tribune in English. Bal Gangadhar Tilak started "Kesari" in Marathi and Maratha in English. Ghosh Brothers- Yugantar and Vande Matram . Newspapers Act 1908 A.D . The Indian Press Act, 1910 A.D. not sufficient to stop anti govt protests. It gave more clarification about objectionable material. During First world war (1914-1918), this act was strictly enforced. Press act of 1931 Foreign Relations Act 1932 A.D. . .
FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF NEW SOCIAL CLASSES Intelligentsia and middle class Middle class traders and industrialists Middle class- professors,doctors,lawyers.journalists Labourers Zamindars Peasants and tenants THEVICTORIAN ERA AND THEINDUSTRIAL REVOLU .