Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course : Modern History (Pre & Mains) Integrated Approach Presented by: Ashna Sisodia
About Me Verified Educator at Unacademy From Chandigarh, India. An Educator at Unacademy since October 2016 Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains 2017 and scored 140 marks in Essay paper and 110 marks each in GS 2 and 3ao Scored 125+ in Prelims 2017 Political Science and International Relations Optional for Mains 2019 . Ashna Sisodia . CSE Btech from UIET, Courses Made so Far In this Course, Ashna Sisodia will comprehensively cover complete Poitical Sclence and nternational Relations in the form of stories and elaborately explain topics, which will be helptul in solving Mains Optional Paper in UPSC latest pattern. The Course will be conducted in English and the notes wil also be provided in English India Yearbook 2018 and Learning Maps quickly in 25 Lessons Nuclear security Doctrine IR & PSIR World History - Module 1 and The Hindu June MCQs The Hindu Weekly Killer Course June 2018 Crash Course on International Organizations and International Relations Teaching Ancient History and Answer Writing on Geography Mains https://unacademy.com/user/AshnaSisodia
New education system and rise of middle class
In 1600, East India company was established in India. In the beginning it was a Trading Company, but gradually it . became a holitocl and Board of Control in England used to Court of directors and Board of Control in England used to send administrative orders. After the revolt of 1857 as the administration of the company went into the hands of British government . In India a central executive and several departments were established, along with Central Secretariat developed Gradually, Central legislature developed and its two houses came into being. In the process of constitutional development real government was setup in provinces in 1919 A.D. and by the government of India Act 1935 AD the provinces were granted provincial autonomy and dual system of government was established at the center. During the British rule in India, several reforms took place and modern education system and press developed .
Development of modern education in India Three Agencies for the spread of modern education: Ancient higher education was commendable and students from abroad used to come to Nalanda and Taxila to receive higher education. Nalanda University- Indian Oxford With the arrival of turks to India, universities lost the importance. Before the coming of the Britishers to India, early education was imparted in temples, pathshalas, Masjid and Madarasa Christian missionaries - propagated Christianity _ British government-open several schools and colleges in different parts of India Progressive Indians - Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Madan Mohan Malviya, Mahatma Gandhi and brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Krishna mission, Singh Sabha, Sanatan Dharam Sabha and Aligarh movement established educational institutions in different parts of the country . .
Early efforts of East India Company In the beginning the company did not pay any attention to the progress of education, because the company was busy in establishing its empire in Bengal and other parts of India. Soon after the government established political position and became strong then they started giving attention to education. in 1781 A.D. Warren Hastings opened a Madrasa in Calcutta, where various languages are taught. The medium of instructions was Persian. In 1785 Sir William Jones with the help of governor journal established Bengal Asiatic Society. Its function was to encourage historical research. In 1791 the British resident at Banaras open Banaras Sanskrit college. The aim of this college was to impart education to the Hindus in the subjects of law. . . . In 1800 Lord Wellesley set up Fort William college to provide education to the Civil servants of the company but in 1802 this college was closed. Bible was translated into 26 native languages.
Spread of education between 1813 to 1834 A.D Indians wanted a type of education which could help them in earning their livelihood Started imparting Western knowledge in English medium. English became the symbol of high class in the society Raja Ram Mohan Roy became supporter of English language and western culture. Elphinston opened in Poona and Bombay in 1834 A.D.
Orientalists - Anglicists Controversy British education system gave birth to controversy. 1 lakh rupees annually for the promotion of education in India. spent on the promotion of Sanskrit, person and ancient Indian literature or it should be spent of the pro Controversy surfaced itself in the committee of public Instruction This committee was constituted for deciding methods to impart education motion and learning of English language and western education. Progressive Indians were in favor of English language and western education Raja Ram Mohan Roy criticize the government decision of opening Calcutta Madrassa and Banaras Sanskrit college. . Anglicist were lead by Macaulay( Became head of the Committee in 1835) Raja Ram Mohan Roy supported Anglicist Orientalist were lead by James Government should spend this amount on the Princep promotion of native languages and Indian literature, these people were called orientalists Trevlyan said that his this money should be spent orn the promotion of English language and western education and literature and they were called anglicists
The orientalists argued . In the Charter act of 1813 AD RupeesEnglish language and western knowledge Anglicist forwarded their views in favour of Charter act of 1813 AD does not clearly mentioned on which languages and system of education, the annual amount of rupees 100000 would be spent. Knowledge of Western literature in English language would widen their vision. Native languages literary and scientificly are not developed It is not appropriate to give Sanskrit and Arabic the status of court languages. Knowledge of Western education would enable the Indians to earn their livelihood and find jobs in the company lakh annually was reserved for the promotion of native languages and literature. The customs, laws and the theology of the Hindus and Muslims have been interpreted in the Sanskrit and Persian. . . . Indians considered Sanskrit and Persian as the languages of their culture. Western education was adopted the age Old Madrasas and Path Shala would close down . . .
Macaulay gave his decision in favour of English language and western literature Macaulay wanted to produce which type of Indians who were Indian in blood and color but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect. He felt that Indians having knowledge of English and western science would be appointed on small jobs. . The British industrialist and merchants also influence them. . Christian missionaries were also in favour of English and western education. The group of prominent English man, including elphinston, held that English education, would make the Indian people gladly accept the British rule .
Development of education from 1835 To 1853 A.D .In 1835 AD Medical College was set up in Calcutta. During Lord Dalhousie reign first Engineering College in Roorkee and women college in Calcutta were established. . Thompson started area confined School system. . He grouped five villages into an area and open primary Schools there : a middle school in every Tehsil and School in Each district. To meet the expenses of the schools, 1% education cess was levied on land revenue tax. During this period Christian missionaries opened colleges such as Wilson College, Bombay, Christian College, Madras, St John College, Agra.
Charles wood's despatch 1854 A.D Principles of Indian education . Government should promote the study of Arts Commerce Sciences . Opening of private Institutions should be encouraged. It is the sacred duty of the government to provide the Indians with moral and material benefits. philosophy and the literature. Native languages should also be promoted Universities should be established in Big towns and cities. Intermediate and degree colleges should be affiliated to these Universities. High Schools, Anglo Vernacular schools, middle schools and primary schools should be placed under the colleges. School should be open to impart training to the teachers to be appointed at school. Department of education should be established in each province. Separate professional colleges should be opened for the study of law, medicine, Engineering. Special arrangements should be made for imparting education to women Syllabus should be framed for students, prescribed books should be written and printed. . . . .
Hunters Education Commission 1882 A.D. Education Commission consisting of 22 members was constituted. The chairman was Sir William Hunter. The objective was to access the progress of education after 1854. 1. The government should pay more attention to the promotion of . primary education The medium of teaching should be native language To meet the expenses of the schools, local taxes should be levied. Secondary Education should be divided into two parts - literary education and practical type of education. More assistance to private institutions All Secondary Schools should be handed over to private institutions Native schools should be given grant on the principle of payment by results Importance of physical education 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hunter Commission 1882 8. 10. More attention to the education of Muslims 11. Knowledge of morality and duties of a citizen 12. Suggestions about professional education, syllabus, textbooks, libraries and scholarships. Lord Ripon (1880-1884 AD)
Indian universities act 1904 A.D. 1. Minimum number of students on the university Senate was fixed at 50 2. 3. and maximum at 100. The syndicate in universities was originally recognized, the number of its members was fixed at 7 to 15. Powers of universities were increased. They were assigned the duties of teaching post graduate classes, appointment of teachers and research on different subjects. Management of universities were entrusted with the responsibility of raising the standard of education, framing of syllabus, improving the examination system and providing basic amenities to the students. Degree classes would remain in the colleges Government had the right to appoint vice chancellors of universities. Right to define the jurisdiction of universities was given to governor general and his Council. The university had to seek permission from the government regarding the affiliation and disaffiliation of a college. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Wardha scheme of education Mahatma Gandhi was dissatisfied with the present system of education. It was expensive as well as it was not suitable to the environment of the children. Therefore, in 1936 a plan of basic education system was formulated. It is known as Wardha scheme of education 1. Students would be imported teachings in their own native WARDHA SCHEME languages Training in handicrafts Primary education to 7 to 14 years would be compulsory and free. Medium of instructions should be the mother tongue of the child Expenditure of the school should be made by selling the article prepared in the school. Moral values should be developed in the character of students. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Sergeant plan of education, 1944 In 1944, the Advisory Council of central education board prepared a national education plan also known as Sergeant Plan. According to this plan, elementary schools and High Schools, Junior and senior basic schools were to be opened in the country and it was planned to give free and compulsory education to the children in the age group between 6 to 11 years. Another type of system of education for 6 years was adopted for the students of age group between 11 to 17 years. All students could not get admission in High Schools, only merit Scholars could get admission in High Schools, intermediate class was merged with the High Schools. . To introduce reforms in the field of education, Dr Radhakrishnan Commission, University Grants Commission and Kothari Commission was set up after 1947
In 1947, the system of education was not free from flaws, there were many causes- . The government spent a little money on education -Primary education was not made free and compulsory as a result 90% people remained illiterate Women education was ignored Promotion of native languages and native literature was ignored. No efforts were made for setting up of science, technical, medical engineering and Commerce institutes. The aim of British Education was to produce clerks who could be employed on Petty jobs.
Growth of press in India lustan Times THETIMES OF INDY War threat rece after Armitage visit rmitage raises hop
There was no printing press before the arrival of the English to India. So, the Indians did not know the importance of newspapers . Growth of press in India First of all, the Portuguese set up a printing press in 1557. The objective was to publish Christian literature and propagate Christianity. The Indians remained ignorant about the curtains of the press and the newspapers In 1684, the English East India company set up a printing press in Bombay. . . om of Press In 1776, the court of directors condemned William bolts for his al trade and he threatened to resign and bring out a newspaper but due to the reaction of the administrative machinery he failed to do so. Hickky pioneer of the press in India - James Augustus Hickky. In 1780, he started bringing out Bengal gazette, a weekly newspaper Soon after the Calcutta gazette and the Indian world war brought out. These newspapers were published in English. Their editors were English and they were meant for their English readers in India. He criticized Mr Hastings and governor generals policies. He was arrested in 1782 and his newspaper was banned. He was supporter of the freedom of the press.
Lord Hastings and press - he was in favour of granting freedom to press. He did not like unjust restrictions put on the press. He abolished censorship on the press. He wanted that fresh should act as a responsible Institution. In 1818 AD, he framed some laws regarding press 1. Newspapers were not allowed to write anything about governor general, the members of the Council, judges and the conduct of Calcutta bishop. 2. They could not criticize political activities of the Government of India. 4. They could not write about british intervention in Indian religions government of India to enquire into the newspapers in India and y were not allowed to write about the activities of the Indian government in England. . Suggestions of Thomas Munro - he was appointed by the submit a detailed report on it. His opinion was that the freedom of press in India would not have any adverse effect on Europeans in India, however it can affect the Indians.
. Vernacular Press Act 1878 Lord lytton was appointed the Governor General of India. He was an imperialist. He had feelings of Contempt for the Indians. - His foolish Afghan Policy was condemned and criticized by the Indian newspapers. Therefore, he decided to impose restrictions on the papers being published in native languages In 1878 he got passed Vernacular Press Act by a meeting of the Legislative Council. The Indian Nationalists called it a gagging act. 1878-Imposition of the Vernacular Press Act by Lord Lyton .The law was imposed only on the regional newspapers of India and its clauses made it one of the most unpopulous and controversial press law to be ever imposed on Indian Press. The clauses of it included: - This act try to suppress the freedom of expression of the - According to this act, the magistrates had been L.Mandatory signing of bonds by the printers and publishers dedaring of no objectionable publication failing which may result in confiscation of the press Indians. empowered to seek a guarantee or a security from the publishers and printers of native newspapers. The government was empowered to warn the publishers or confiscate their surety on finding objectionable matter in their newspapers. According to Indians, the Act was based on the policy of discrimination, the restrictions were imposed on papers published in native language only not on the papers published in Englush. Middle class Elite gave up the profession of journalism 2.The printers and publishers would not be allowed to approach the court for help 3.Issuance of search warrants to enable govt. ofiicials to earch any newspaper premise 4.Deposition of Rs.10,000 while signing the bond 1881 the law was repealed by Lord Rippon
Growth of press between 1881-1907 A.D. - press was quite free. . Hindu Patriot and Poona Sarvajanik Sabha highlighted the just demands of the Indians. Surendernath Banerjee propogated nationalist ideas against British rule. Dyal singh Majithia started The tribune in English. Bal Gangadhar Tilak started "Kesari" in Marathi and Maratha in English. Ghosh Brothers- Yugantar and Vande Matram . Newspapers Act 1908 A.D . The Indian Press Act, 1910 A.D. not sufficient to stop anti govt protests. It gave more clarification about objectionable material. During First world war (1914-1918), this act was strictly enforced. Press act of 1931 Foreign Relations Act 1932 A.D. . .
Indian states protection act of 1934 . Political trends of Indian Press . Second world war and the Press X: Press Agencies - 1948, The Press trust of India . The role of Indian Press before Independence *. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA PRESS TRUST OF INDA
FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF NEW SOCIAL CLASSES Intelligentsia and middle class Middle class traders and industrialists Middle class- professors,doctors,lawyers.journalists Labourers Zamindars Peasants and tenants THEVICTORIAN ERA AND THEINDUSTRIAL REVOLU .