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In this lesson we discuss about the concept of symbolic interactionaism..

Shalini mishra is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Shalini mishra
A passionate teacher, NET qualified, UGC NET Qualified. 9 years of teaching experience. Love to give my knowledge to all students in need.

Unacademy user
sir, explanation in english will be highly appreciated.. thank you.

  2. Thinkerl George Herbert Mead

  3. . Thus, to Mead and symbolic interactionists, consciousness is not separated from action and interaction, but is an integral part of both. Symbolic interactionism as a pragmatic philosophy was an antecedent to the philosophy of transactionalism

  4. Social philosophy (behaviorism) e Mead was a very important figure in 2oth century social philosophy. One of his most influential ideas was the emergence of mind and self from the communication process between organisms, discussed in Mind, Self and Society, also known as social behaviorism Mead, like Dewey, developed a more materialist process philosophy that was based upon human action and specifically communicative action. Human activity is, in a pragmatic sense, the criterion of truth, and through human activity meaning is made. Joint activity, including communicative activity, is the means through which our sense of self is constituted

  5. For Mead, mind arises out of the social act of communication. Mead's concept of the social act is relevant, not only to his theory of mind, but to all facets of his social philosophy. His theory of "mind, self, and society" is, in effect, a philosophy of the act from the standpoint of a social process involving the interaction of many individuals, just as his theory of knowledge and value is a philosophy of the act from the standpoint of the experiencing individual in interaction with an environment

  6. ction is very important to his social theory and, according to Mead, actions also occur within a communicative process. The initial phase of an act constitutes a gesture. A gesture is a preparatory movement that enables other individuals to become aware of the intentions of the given organism. The rudimentary situation is a conversation of gestures, in which a gesture on the part of the first individual evokes a preparatory movement on the part of the second, and the gesture of the second organism in turn calls out a response in the first person, On this level no communication occurs. Neither organism is aware of the effect of its own gestures upon the other; the gestures are nonsignificant. For communication to take place, each organism must have knowledge of how the other individual will respond to his own ongoing act. Here the gestures are significant symbols

  7. A significant symbol is a kind of gesture that only humans can make o Mead the social psvchologist argued in tune with Durkheim that the individual is a product of an ongoing, preexisting society, or more specificallv, social interaction that is a consequence of a sui eneris societv, The selfarises when the individual ecomes an object to themselves. Mead argued that we are objects first to other people, and secondarily we become objects to ourselves by taking the perspective of other people

  8. Nature of the self individual importation of the social process that there are series of actions that go on in the mind . A final piece of Mead's social theory is the mind as the o Mead states, "The self is a social process," meaning to help formulate one's complete self Mead presented the self and the mind in terms of a social process.

  9. "I" and This process is characterized by Mead as the the "Me". The "Me" is the social self and the "T" is the response to the "Me." In other words, the "I" is the response of an individual to the attitudes of others, while the "me" is the organized set of attitudes of others which an individual assumes

  10. e Mead develop William lames ' s distinction between the "I" and the "me." The "me" is the accumulated understanding of "the generalized other" i.e. how one thinks one's group perceives oneself etc. The "I" is the individual's impulses. The "T" is self as subject; the "me" is self as object. The "I" is the knower, the "me" is the known. The mind, or stream of thought, is the self-reflective movements of the interaction between the "I" and the "me." There is neither "I" nor "me" in the conversation of gestures; the whole act is not yet carried out, but the preparation takes place in this field of gesture

  11. ese dynamics go beyond self hood in a narrow sense, and form the basis of a theory of human cognition. For Mead the thinking process is the internalized dialogue between the"I" and the "me." Mead rooted the selfs "perception and meaning deeply and sociologically in a common specifically in social encounters. Understood as a combination of the T' and the 'me', Mead's self proves to be noticeably entwined within a sociological existence, For Mead, existence in community comes before individual consciousness. First one must participate in the different social positions within society and only subsequently can one use that experience to take the perspective of others and thus become self-conscious. and meaning" deeply and sociolog raxis of subjects" (Joas 1985: 166) found

  12. Philosophy of science o Mead is a major American philosopher by virtue of being, lohn Dewey, Charles Peirce and William James along with Jo one of the founders of significant contributions to the philosophies of nature, science, and history, to ragmatism He also made hilosophical anthropolo and rocess philosoph Dewey and Alfred North Whitehead is a classic example of a social theorist whose work does not fit easily within conventional disciplinary boundaries. considered Mead a thinker of the first rank, He

  13. ay and game and the generalized other e Mead theorized that human beings begin their understanding of the social world through "play" and "game". "Play" comes first in the child's development. The child takes different roles he/she observes in "adult" society, and plays them out to gain an understanding of the different social roles. For instance, he first plays the role of policeman and then the role of thief while playing "Cops and Robbers," and plays the role of doctor and patient when playing "Doctor." As a result of such play, the child learns to become both subject and object and begins to become able to build a self. However, it is a limited self because the child can only take the role of distinct and separate others, they still lack a more general and organized sense of themselves

  14. . In the next stage, the game stage, it is required thata person develop a full sense of self. Whereas in the play stage the child takes on the role of distinct others, in the game stage the child must take the role of everyone else involved in the game. Furthermore, these role:s must have a definite relationship to one another. To illustrate the game stage, Mead gives his famous example of a baseball game:

  15. n the game stage, organization begins and definite personalities start to emerge. Children begin to become able to function in organized groups and most importantly, to determine what they will do within a specific group e Mead calls this the child's first encounter with "the eneralized ", which is one of the main concepts Mead proposes for other understanding the emergence of the (social) self in human beings. "The generalized other" can be thought of as understanding the given activity and the actors' place within the activity from the perspective of all the others engaged in the activity. Through understanding "the generalized other" the individual understands what kind of behavior is expected, appropriate and so on, in different social settings.

  16. ow does perspective taking occur according to Mead? It has been argued that social acts (such as games and routine forms of social interaction) enable perspective taking through 'position exchange Assuming that games and routine social acts have differentiated social positions, and that these positions create our cognitive perspectives, then it might be that by moving between roles in a game (e.g. between hiding and seeking or buying and selling) we come to learn about the perspective of the other. This new interpretation of Mead's account of taking the perspective of the other has experimental support