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Humidity & Precipitation - Climatology
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Humidity and Precipitation are the important concepts of Climatology which has been explained in this lesson by Bhanwar, along with forms of condensation.

Bhanwar Singh
Ex- National Defence Academy (115 Course) Cleared Civil Services Examination, 2012

U
wonderfully explained ma'am.
thank you sir @@@!@ very useful course
R
good attempt sir ,,this year u cleared exam
Sir not to offend .. i have studied in engineering that practically air has no weight. So how can specific humidity be defined ? Thanks.
Rohit Gupta
2 years ago
Bro, that we assume while working with applications in thermodynamics in general...in thermo books also it is mentioned that we neglect the mass of air, but air has the mass and density. With that mass of air only our atmosphere is sustained...the density of air is about 1.2kg/m^3. So in 1 m^3 volume, the air mass is about 1.2 kg.
Ziya Yusuf
2 years ago
Thanks rohit bhai for clearing my doubt.
Shubham khedkar
2 years ago
thanks
thanks sir
1. CRASH COURSE-WORLD GEOGRAPHY Presented by - Bhanwar Singh Sirohi

2. CLIMATOLOGY-HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION

4. HUMIDITY water va pour present in the atmosphere is termed Humidity Concentrated mainly in the troposphere It is the important factor in deciding the weather Saturated Air: It is the condition under which the amount of water vapour in the air is what could be maximum possible at the given temperature and pressure If more water vapor is added to saturated air or if temperature falls, it results into condensation The relative humidity is measured by an instrument called Hygrometer

5. TERMINOLOGIES DEW POINT: Temperature at which air becomes saturated HUMIDITY CAPACITY: It is the capacity of an air of certain volume at certain temperature to retain maximum amount of moisture content ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY: The ratio between the weight of water va pour per unit volume of air. lt is expressed in grams per cubic metre of air SPECIFIC HUMIDITY: The ratio between the weight of water va pour in grams to the weight of air in kilograms. It is expressed in grams per kilograms of air RELATIVE HUMIDITY It is the ratio between Absolute Humidity and Humidity Capacity and is expressed as a percentage. i.e. RH=AH X100 HC

6. FORMS OF PRECIPITATION RAINFALL Cloud droplets becomes so large due to coalescence that air could not hold them HAIL It consists of masses of ice with a layered structure Drops of rain gets solidified into small pieces of ice Raindrops freeze before reaching the ground and falls in form of pellets It consists of masses of fine ice crystals SLEET SNOW FALL Dew point of air should be below the freezing point

7. Warm Air Rain Freezing Rain Sleet Snow Frozen precipitation melts in warm air. Rain falls and freezes on cold surfaces Frozen precipitation melts in shallow warm air. Then refreezes into sleet before reaching the surface Frozen precipitation Melts and reaches Snow falls through cold air and reaches the surface the ground as rain

8. RAINFALL PRE-REQUISITE Presence of warm, moist and unstable air Sufficient number of hygroscopic nuclei TYPES OF RAINFALL CONVECTIONAL CYCLONIC/FRONTAL RAINFALL OROGRAPHIC RAINFAL ro cold hart coldl aufd ain, WESTERN RDPE EARTH SU RAACS

9. CONDENSATION It is the process of conversion of water va pour into liquid or solid form Three conditions are necessary for condensation process Presence of hygroscopic nuclei Air temperature must fall to or below dew point Sufficient amount of water va pour in the air should be present Condensation process may happen in various forms

10. TYPES OF CONDENSATION DEW water vapour condenses o temperature below dew point n leaves of plants and trees in form of small droplets or FOG a Microscopic water droplets suspended in air near the ground surface MIST Type of fog when visibility is restricted to 2 km but is more than 1 km If dew point falls below 0 C, water vapour condenses in solid form Type of fog which is mixture of fog and smoke Caused by smoke and dust particles which results in low visibility of less than 2 km FROST SMOG HAZE