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Biotic Regions - Biogeography
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This lesson presented by Bhanwar details the various biotic regions that could be find on the earth surface with detailed description of each of them.

Bhanwar Singh
Ex- National Defence Academy (115 Course) Cleared Civil Services Examination, 2012

U
Unacademy user
  1. CRASH COURSE-WORLD GEOGRAPHY Presented by - Bhanwar Singh Sirohi


  2. BIOGEOGRAPHY-BIOTIC REGIONS


  3. BIOMES Biomes are those regions which have similar climate and similar flora and fauna are found there They could be found over a range of continents Biome is distinct from habitat because it may contain variety of habitats Microbiome is also a mix of organisms that co-exist in a defined space, however it exists on a much smaller scale Biomes could be classified broadly into two part Terrestrial Biomes (Land) Aquatic Biomes (Freshwater and Marine)


  4. MAJOR BIOMES OF THE EARTH There is no consensus about the exact number or different types of biomes in existence The major classification of biomes of the earth suggests that there are six biomes Arctic Tundra Coniferous Forest Deciduous Forest Desert Grasslands Mountains Rainforests


  5. ARCTIC TUNDRA Finnish word tunturia' means a barren land Finnish word 'tunturia, means a barren land Arctic Tundra is the world's youngest biome and coldest & driest a Located between 55 to 70 latitudes in the north or to the North of Taiga Covers 20% of Earth surface a Low annual precipitation up to 60cm Maximum precipitation in late summer or in autumn and light winter snowfall Permafrost exist at some distance below the ground surface; No permafrost in Alpine Tundra Low herbaceous plants, mosses and lichens grow here Fauna-Caribou, R a Fauna Caribou, Reindeer, Musk ox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Fox, Lemming, Polar Bear a Regions include N. Canada, Alaska, Russia, N. Scandinavia Regions inclUde


  6. CONIFEROUS FORESTS It lies south of the Arctic Tundra, also known as Boreal Forest Biome (Boreal: Greek goddess of North Wind) Stretches from Alaskaacross North America to the Atlantic Ocean and across Eurasia and is the largest biome in the worlc Light precipitation of 25cm to 50cm mainly in summer season , a The stretch of coniferous forest across Northern Hemisphere, is called Taiga' which is Russian word for forest. These trees supplies world commercial softwood timber and are evergreen a Long, thin, waxy needle leaf forests with small number of species found e.g. White Spruce, Douglas Fir, Pine, Larch, Alder, Birch, Juniper, Hemlock a Fauna Moose, Wolves, Bears, Snowshoe hare, Grouse, Squirrels, Sparrows Characterised by very low population density


  7. DECIDUOUS FORESTS Broad leaf, deciduous trees are found which shed their leaves in winter season and this process of shedding leaves is called Abscission Four distinct seasons viz., spring, summer autumn and winter a Moderate precipitation ranging from 75cm to 100cm Effect of continentality increases the seasonal range of temperature Deciduous trees have been destroyed for agriculture and human settlements a Medium to high population density is found Fauna-Deer, squirrels, Wood mice, Rabbits, Raccoons, Woodpeckers, Cardinals, Region-Europe,Eastern Asia, S. Canada and E. United States, New Zealand and Species-Oak, Beech, Ash, Maple, Tulip, Sycamore, Hickory, Elm, Poplar, Birch Puma, Mountain lion, Panther, Fox Southeast Australia


  8. DESERTS Covers about one-fifth of the earth's land surface Rainfall is less than 25 cm Found on every continent except Europe Two types : (i) Hot and Dry and (ii) Cold and Dry a Lack of water and intense heat or cold Very less population density Mainly nocturnal animals are found and plants too are adapted to the environment Flora-Cactus, Turpentine Bush, Prickly Pears, Brittle Bush Fauna-Reptiles, Snakes, Lizards, Amphibians, Camel (Hot Deserts) and Penguins (Antarctica) and Antelope, Ground Squirrels, Jack Rabbits, Kangaroo Rats (Cold Deserts)


  9. GRASSLANDS It occupies 19 percent of Earth's area and are of two kinds: (i) Tropical and (ii) Temperate Places with hot and dry climates with variable rainfall Receive less rainfall, so very few trees can grow o Used for pastoralism and livestock ranching and growing cereal crops High population densities on flood plains Fauna-Cow, Buffaloes, Sheep, Goat, Deer, Fox and Prairie Dog, Mule Deer (N. Fauna Cow, Buffaloes, Sheep, Goat America) and Giraffe and Zebra (Africa) and Lion (Africa and Asia) a Flora Buffalo grass, Sunflower, Crazy Weed, Asters, Goldenrods, Clover Regions-African tropics, South America, South East Asia (Tropical) and Central Asia, E. Europe, Central N. America, East Australia (Temperate)


  10. NAMES OF GRASSLANDS TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS Pampas Veld Canterbury Plains Murray Darling Basin Prairies Steppes Argentina Africa New Zealand Australia North America Central Asia TROPICAL GRASSLANDS Llanos Cerrado Savannas Venezuela and Columbia Brazil Africa and South America