# Instrumentation Engineering (IN)

Candidates can opt from among 29 subject papers in the GATE 2022 Exam. Here is the latest syllabus in detail for Instrumentation Engineering.

The GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2022 Exam includes a total of 29 subject papers. One of the papers is Instrumentation Engineering (Code: IN). The latest syllabus contains 10 sections with various sub-topics under each section.

### Linear Algebra:

• Matrix Algebra
• Eigen Value And Eigen Vectors
• Consistency And Rank
• Systems Of Linear Equations

### Calculus:

• Fourier Series
• Mean Value Theorems
• Vector Identities
• Partial Derivatives
• Line, Surface And Volume Integrals
• Multiple Integrals
• Stokes
• Gauss And Green’s Theorems
• Maxima And Minima
• Theorems Of Integral Calculus

### Differential Equations:

• First Order Equation (Linear And Nonlinear)
• Method Of Variation Of Parameters
• Second-Order Linear Differential Equations With Constant Coefficients
• Solution Of Partial Differential Equations: Variable Separable Method
• Initial And Boundary Value Problems
• Cauchy’s And Euler’s Equations

### Analysis Of Complex Variables:

• Analytic Functions
• Cauchy’s Integral Theorem And Integral Formula
• Taylor’s And Laurent’s Series
• Residue Theorem
• Solution Of Integrals

### Probability And Statistics:

• Random Variables: Discrete And Continuous Distributions: Normal, Poisson And Binomial Distributions
• Sampling Theorems
• Conditional Probability
• Mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance

### Numerical Methods:

• Matrix Inversion
• Numerical Integration
• Regression And Correlation  Analysis
• Iterative Methods For Solving Differential Equations
• Solutions Of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations

### Section 2: Electricity And Magnetism

• Coulomb’s Law
• Capacitance Of Simple Configurations
• Electric Field Intensity
• Electric Flux Density
• Self And Mutual Inductance Of Simple Configurations
• Biot-Savart’s Law
• Gauss’s Law, Divergence
• Magnetomotive Force
• Effect Of Dielectric Medium
• Reluctance
• Lorentz Force
• Electric Field And Potential Due To Point, Line, Plane, And Spherical Charge Distributions
• Reluctance
• Ampere’s Law
• Curl
• Magnetic Circuits
• Inductance

### Voltage And Current Sources:

• Transient Analysis Of RLC Circuits With dc Excitation
• Independent, Dependent, Ideal And Practical
• Norton
• Mesh And Nodal Analysis
• Peak-, Average- and rms Values Of ac Quantities
• Thevenin
• Superposition
• Apparent-, Active- And Reactive Powers
• Maximum Power Transfer And Reciprocity Theorems
• Phasor Analysis, Impedance, and Admittance
• One-Port And Two-Port Networks, Driving Point Impedance And Admittance, Open-, And Short Circuit Parameters
• v-i Relationships Of Resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor
• Series And Parallel Resonance, Locus Diagrams, Realization Of Basic Filters With R, L, And C Elements
• Transient Analysis Of Rlc Circuits With Ac Excitation
• Kirchoff’s Laws

### Single Phase Transformer:

• Types Of Losses And Efficiency Calculations Of Electric Machines
• Phasor Diagram
• Regulation And Efficiency
• Open Circuit And Short Circuit Tests
• Three Phase Induction Motors: Principle Of Operation, Types, Performance, Torque-Speed Characteristics, No-Load And Blocked Rotor Tests, Equivalent Circuit, Starting, And Speed Control
• Equivalent Circuit

### Section 4: Signals And Systems

• Convolution, Correlation
• Periodic, Aperiodic, And Impulse Signals
• Basics Of IIR And FIR Filters
• Laplace, Fourier, And z-Transforms
• Discrete Time System: Impulse Response, Frequency Response, Pulse Transfer Function
• Transfer Function, Frequency Response Of First And Second Order Linear Time-Invariant Systems, Impulse Response Of Systems
• DFT and FFT

### Section 5: Control Systems

• Routh And Nyquist Criteria
• Feedback Principles
• Signal Flow Graphs
• Transient Response
• On-Off, P, PI, PID, Cascade, Feedforward and Ratio Controllers, Tuning Of PID Controllers and Sizing Of Control Valves
• Bode Plot, Phase, and Gain Margins
• Root Loci
• Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators
• Design Of Lead
• State-Space Representation Of Systems
• Time-Delay Systems
• Mechanical, Hydraulic, and Pneumatic System Components, Synchro Pair, Servo And Stepper Motors, Servo Valves

### Section 6: Analog Electronics

• Characteristics Of Ideal And Practical Operational Amplifiers
• Applications Of Opamps: Adder, Subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits.
• Small Signal Analysis Of Transistor Circuits, Feedback Amplifiers
• Characteristics and Applications Of Diode, Zener Diode, BJT, And MOSFET

### Section 7: Digital Electronics

• Combinational Logic Circuits
• Basics Of Data Acquisition Systems, Basics Of Distributed Control Systems (DCS), and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
• IC Families: TTL And CMOS
• Basics Of Number Systems
• Sample-And-Hold Circuit, Multiplexer, Analog-To-Digital (Successive Approximation, Integrating, Flash and Sigma-Delta), And Digital-To-Analog Converters (Weighted R, R2R Ladder and Current Steering Logic)
• Characteristics Of ADC And DAC (Resolution, Quantization, Significant Bits, Conversion/Settling Time)
• Minimization Of Boolean Functions
• Arithmetic Circuits, Comparators, Schmitt Trigger, Multi-Vibrators, Sequential Circuits, Flipflops, Shift Registers, Timers, And Counters
• Embedded Systems: Microprocessor And Microcontroller Applications, Memory and Input-Output Interfacing

### Section 8: Measurements

• Measurement Of Voltage, Current, And Power In Single And Three Phase Circuits
• SI Units
• Standards (R, L, C, Voltage, Current, and Frequency), Systematic And Random Errors In Measurement
• ac and dc Current Probes
• True RMS Meters, Voltage and Current Scaling, Instrument Transformers, Timer/Counter, Time, Phase and Frequency Measurements, Digital Voltmeter, Digital Multimeter
• Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering, And Wien For Measurement Of R, L, C, And Frequency, Q-Meter
• Oscilloscope, Shielding, and Grounding
• Expression Of Uncertainty – Accuracy and Precision, Propagation Of Errors, Linear and Weighted Regression

### Section 9: Sensors And Industrial Instrumentation

• 4-20 mA Two-Wire Transmitter
• Resistive-, Capacitive-, Inductive-, Piezoelectric-, Hall Effect Sensors, And Associated Signal Conditioning Circuits
• Liquid Level, pH, Conductivity, and Viscosity Measurement
• Transducers For Industrial Instrumentation: Displacement (Linear And Angular), Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Torque, Vibration, Shock, Pressure (Including Low Pressure), Flow (Variable Head, Variable Area, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic, Turbine, and Open Channel Flow Meters) Temperature (Thermocouple, Bolometer, RTD (3/4 Wire), Thermistor, Pyrometer, And Semiconductor)

### Section 10: Communication And Optical Instrumentation

• UV-VIS Spectro Photometers
• Shannon’s Sampling Theorem, Pulse Code Modulation
• Optical Sources and Detectors: LED, Laser, Photodiode, Light Dependent Resistor, Square Law Detectors and Their Characteristics
• Frequency And Time Division Multiplexing, Amplitude-, Phase-, Frequency-, Quadrature Amplitude, Pulse Shift Keying For Digital Modulation
• Basics Of Fiber Optic Sensing
• Interferometer: Applications In Metrology
• Mass Spectrometer
• Amplitude- and Frequency Modulation and Demodulation