Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
When people rebel 1857 revolt cause- Common enemy- British- Common to whom? . Common to some rulers .Stationing of Residents reduced freedom of rulers Policies like Subsidiary Alliance disbanded their armies At times, their territories were taken away on various pretexts . Policies like D.O.L -entry of Rani Lakshmibai and Nana Saheb (adopted son of Peshwa Baji RaO lI) Annexation of Awadh (1856) on ground of misgovernance caused huge resentment Traditional authority of Mughals checked- Name of Mughal king removed from coins minted by Company : CG Dalhousie- After death of BSZ, king's family will be shifted out of Red Fort 1856-Canning- BSZ-Last king- Then on-PRINCES
When people tebel Peasants Peasants resented high taxation, revenue settlement systems and rigid methods of collection Many lost the lands they had tilled for generations . Sepoys . Unhappy on discrimination in pay & allowances Violation of their religious sensibilities- Crossing sea during Burma campaign, cartridges 1856-law-every new sepoy-agree to serve overseas .Sepoys also felt the heat of what was happening in villages
When people tebel Reforms by British . Laws to stop sati, promote widow re-marriage . English education, activities of missionaries After 1830, Christian missionaries allowed to function freely in Company's domain+ Own land & property 1850- An Indian converted to Xtianity could inherit property of ancestors .
When people tebel Mutiny turns into a POPULAR REBELLION Everybody sensed that though they didn't have common cause they did have a COMMON enemy This feeling predominant in N.INDIA 29 March 1857-Mangal Pandey hanged in Barrackpore After this, sepoy regiments at Meerut rebelled They released fheir fellow sepoys from prisons, aftackea and even killed British officers- firangis Strategy included capture of ammunition houses The alternative they proposed-Mughal emperor BSZ . .
When people tebel From Meerut, the rebellion spread to DELHI where on insistence of sepoys, BSZ wrote letters to all chiefs & rules of country Implication-When people sense an alternative, they feel inspired Most small rulers who were fearful of British expansion declared loyalty to BSZ Nana Saheb proclaimed himself PESHWA and Governor under BSZ Lucknow-Birjis Qadr,son of deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah acknowledged suzerainty of BSZ . . . Rani Jhansi, Tantia Tope (general of Nana Saheb), Begum Hazrat Mahal (Lucknow), Rani Avantibai Lodhi of Ramgarh all rebelled
When people tebel Many NEW RULERS came to forefront . Ahmadullah Shah, a maulvi from FAIZABAD, came to Lucknow . Bakht Khan, a soldier from Bareilly came to Delhi Kunwar Singh, a zamindar from Bihar In areas like Awadh, it almost became a POPULARREBELLION .
When people tebel Reaction of Company . Passing new laws to make convictions of rebels easier . Getting reinforcements from England to crush rebellion .Recapturing Delhi in Sept 1857 BSZ deported to Rangoor . Defeat of Rani Laxmibai and Rani go Avantibai Tantia Tope captured in 1859 and killed Public hangings on large scale Rewarding the loyal- Be it loyal zamindars or princely rulers .
When people rebel Important changes 1858 Act to transfer power to BRITISH CROWN Appointment of a member of Parliament as Secretary of State along with a council k/a India Council G gIVen Tifie of Viceroy-personal representaTive of Crown . Assurance to heirs of princely states of their power + No more territory annexation Condition of recognizing Queen as paramount Army- Indian soldiers reduced as a proportion of English ones. Instead of recruitment from Awadh & Bihar, recruitment began from Sikhs, Pathans and GGUrkhas Muslim properties contiscafed and they were looked with suspicion No more interference in religious beliefs Security of land rights to landlords & zamindars
When people tebel The First Indian War of Independence . Colin . Sayyed Ahmed Khan . . Causes of Indian Revolt SB Chaudhary Sepoy Mutiny and Rebellion .Karl Marx of 1857 Civil Rebellion in Indiar mutinies R C Majumdar . .