Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Means of livelihood for tribals- variety of activities Jhum cultivators/shifting cultivation Done on small forest patches + Used broadcast methods in sowing+ Once cultivated field left fallow for many years Based on regular movement to new lands- Mainly done in NE and C.lndia .
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Hunting-gathering For e.g. Khonds of Odisha . Collective hunts + Meat, fruits etc. Oil extracted from seeds of sal & mahua +Used even as medicines .Even sold produce such as kusum & palash flowers in local markets Got grains in exchange + Did odd jobs in villages (roads)+ At times got loans from moneylenders on high interest Some of them such as BAIGAS considered themselves people of forest and hence disgraceful to work as labour on fields Overall, traders & moneylenders seen as evil outsiders .
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Herding & rearing animals- Pastoralism For e.g. Van Gujjars of Punjab hills, Labadis of Andhra Pradesh, Gaddis of Kulu, Bakarwals of Kashmir Settled cultivators For e.g. Mundas of Chottanagpur, Gonds and Santhals Got even land rights For Mundas, land belonged to the whole clan
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Effect of colonial rule on tribal lives Impact on TRIBAL CHIEFS- Earlier economic powert administer+ decided local land rules+ had own police After British- Traditional functions changed+ lost admin power +had to follow British lawst pay tribute to British + Could keep land titles & rent it out Impact on SHIFTING CULTIVATORS- British wanted to stop their movement to enable easy control + wanted them to do settled agriculture + Land settlements with them Plough cultivation is tough in areas where water is less & soil is dry NE jhum cultivators insisted on doing jhum Widespread protests- British had to allow them in some areas
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Impact of FOREST LAWS- Forests declared as STATE PROPERTY+ Timber procured from RESERVED FORESTS + Movement restricted in RF + Difficult to hunt & gathert Couldn't live in these forests + Many protests such as Songram Satyagraha(Assam) . British got timber from here- used in rail sleepers Issue-If they arent allowed to live, how will British get labour to cut trees? Solution- Gave small patches to jhum cultivators on condition of labour provision. This led to establishment of FOREST VILLAGES to ensure regular cheap labour
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Impact of TRADE POLICIES- For e.g. Silk was in demand in European markets Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)-Santhals reared cocoons Silk traders sent their agents to give loans to tribals to rear silk These middlemen earned huge profits leading to very low income for tribals
Tribals, Dikus & Vision of a Golden Age Tribals away from their tribes- Coming of tea plantations & coal mines meantjob opportunities + Tribals went far off from their lands to work there + Recruited by contractors + Paid low wages + Couldn't go back to home . Result of all this was tribal rebellions- Kols, Santhals (1855), Bastar rebellion-1910, Warli revolt (Maharashtra)-1940 .
A look at Munda rebellion Birsa Munda grew up listening Munda sardars talk of a golden age free from oppression by Dikus & talked of fight for their land (mulk ki . larai) Birsa-local missionary school- Heard that it was possible for Mundas to get Kingdom of Heaven if they embrace Xtianity He took up a movement-Reforming tribal society + Recovering GOLDEN PAST- satyug+ against Hindu landlords as well as missionaries+ Focus on Munda way of life + Work hard on fields + Give up liquor & belief in witchcraft They wanted to drive out all outsiders to set up MUNDA RAJ and t vies political aim worried Britishers
The tribal leader who was regarded as an incarnation of God and Father of the World/ Dharti Aba was A. Kanhu B. Rupa Naik C. Birsa Munda D. Joria Bhagat
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