Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
From trade to territory i0
From trade to territory Last powerful Mughal emperor Aurangzeb dies in 1707 . This marks the rise of REGIONAL KINGDOMS which were established by Mughal governors (subahdars) and big zamindars . At the same time, a new power centre was rising i.e. BRITISH How and why did a Company that was reluctant to acquire territory go on to evolve into a colonial power?
From trade to territory Coming of East India Company to East 1600-Queen Elizabeth grants SOLE RIGHT to EIC to trade with East. This was done via a charter. Why were these foreign companies interested in far-off lands like India? They were MERCANTILE trading companies By MERCANTILE, we mean a business enterprise that makes profit by TRADING- buy cheap, sell dear India seemed a perfect destination .
From trade to territory What was the problem then? . They had to compete with other EUROPEAN POWERS who were entering Eastern markets By the time British reached India, Portuguese had already made their base in Goa . INDIA AFRICA 1498- VASCO-DA-GAMA SEA . After British, came Dutch and then . 1st issue All were interested in ROUTE to India St. Helena French purchasing the same things- cotton, silk, pepper, cloves, cardamom, etc.
From trade to territory All were competing to buy these and as a result PRICES pushed up. So, initially they were BUYING COSTLY. This reduced their overall profit. Solution- Eliminate the fellow European competitors How? - Sank each other's ships, blockaded routes and finally battles 2nd issue- To carry on trade, these companies made TRADING POSTS and FORTIFIED them. Also, to engage in profitable trade i.e. buy cheap, they invited anger of local rulers who wanted their artisans and peasants to flourish . .So, in these 2 ways, TRADE & POLITICS could no longer be separated
Increasing control over BENGAL 1651-1st English factory set up on banks of River Hugli Factory included WAREHOUSE to store goods and OFFICES where company officials sat. Factors was name given to Company traders. Slowly, fortification began 1698- Then it bribed Mughal officials to give ZAMINDARI RIGHTS to Company over 3 villages k/a KALIKATA Then persuaded Aurangzeb to issue farman to grant RIGHT TO TRADE DUTY FREE. Slowly it began misusing these concessions . For e.g. Aurangzeb's farman had granted these rights only to COMPANY, but side-by-side, officials in their PRIVATE capacity also started trading duty free All this caused huge loss of revenue to Bengal .
From trade to territory So, why did Nawab of Bengal, MURSHID QULI KHAN not protest? . Because Mughal rule was still stronger at this time . When Aurangzeb died, Bengal nawabs started exerting power and refused any concession to British. They denied them right to mint coins, making fortifications, etc. . Coming of British -ECONOMIC LOSS as well as threat to POLITICAL .British said-We want to expand TRADE, so we need bigger . All this culminated in BATTLE OF PLASSEY AUTHORITY of NAWABS settlements and so we need to buy villages PLASSEY is anglicized pronunciation of PLASHl- palash tree- Re flowers used to make gulal for Holi
From trade to territory Palash tree-Red flowers used to make gulal for Holi It is known as FLAME OF THE FOREST Found mention in poems of Tagore State flower of Jharkhand . . . .
From trade to territory So Clive diplomatically secured support of MIR JAFAR, commander of SIRAJ UD DAULA, by promising to make him Nawab Finally, Nawab was defeated at PLASSEY. Later assassinated. But Company understood that even puppet nawabs were not of much use. Even puppet nawabs had to maintain their own dignity in front of their own subjects Soon, Mir Jafar protested. He was deposed and MIR QASIM . When QASIM complained, he was defeated at BUXAR-1764 .After all this, Clive declared-"WE MUST INDEED BECOME NAWABS installed MIR JAFFAR was again brought in OURSELVES" 1765- Mughal Emperor- Company as DIWAN of Bengal
From trade to territory Reaction to "nabobs" in England Many Company officials were from humble background. They thought-Lets earn in India, go back and live good lives They went back and flaunted their wealth Some like CLIVE left India with vast fortune of nearly 4 lakh pounds!! British Parliament grew suspicious of this wealth. Clive was examined, but later acquitted. He committed suicide later. "nabobs" were made fun of ln plays & cartoons in Britain . . .
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