Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Colonialism & the city . With industrialization, many industrial cities in West grew rapidly For e.g. Leeds & Manchester But Indian cities didn't expand as rapidly Fate of all cities in India wasn't same . While Presidenciesi.e. Bombay, Madras and Calcutta rose, many other small towns saw a decline This decline was due to blow to manufacturing in these cities . I kings who extended patronage Many old port cities saw a decline as flow of trade shifted towards Britain and thus new port cities developed Regional centres of power of local rulers also collapsed . .
Colonialism & the city So we saw DE-URBANISATION phase in India Examples of this de-urbanisation were cities of Machlipatnam, Surat and Seringapatnam Even historic imperial city of Delhi saw a decline (until it was made capital after 1912) In this chapter, we have a look at DELHI . . .
Colonialism & the city Historically served as capital for more than 1000 years Delhi was we know today is composed of nearly 14 different capital cities for various dynasties and various rulers . . . Most splendid -Walled City of Shahjahanabad It consisted of fort-palace complex, Lal Qila, Jama Masjid, small bazaars and densely-populated housing Culture-Important Sufi centre having dargahs, khanqahs and idgahs . . Society-Sharp divisions-hawelis interspersed with mud houses
Colonialism & the city 1803- British got it after defeating Marathas As capital was Calcutta, Mughal Emperor was allowed to live in Red Fort In Delhi, living spaces of British and Indians weren'tsegregated as in other Presidencies (black and white areas) British even enjoyed th Persian/Urdu culture & poetry Delhi College led to intellectual flowering of city So this period (1830-57)- Delhi renaissance . . .
Colonialism & the city 1857 revolt- British exiled BSZ + Razed his palaces, gardens It was a spree to erase MUGHAL PAST British wanted a clear ground for security. So, area around Fort was cleared. Though temples were kept intact, mosques were destroyed or transformed (Zinat-al-Masjid into bakery) . No worship allowed in Jama Masjid for 5 yrs Walls of Shahjahanabad broken to establish railway line British began living in CIVIL LINES Delhi college shut down Canals were filled up and 1/3rd city demolished . . .
Colonialism & the city But British knew the symbolic relevance of the city 1877-Lytton- Delhi Durbar though capital was Calcutto 1911-Became capital of British India and King George V crowned in Delhi New capital constructed on RAISINA HILL Architects- Edward Lutyens and Hebert Baker Had features of India's past as well, but overall look was Classical . . Greece For e.g. Viceroy palace-dome- Sanchi Stupa . British ensured that Viceroy's palace was higher than Jama Masjid!!
Colonialism & the city Wanted to show cleanliness and order as compared to chaos in Shahjahanabad So, crowded mohallas & narrow lanes were replaced with mansions & broad streets . . So New Delhi came to have a better water supply than Old Delhi . Colonial bungalows replaced Mughal aristrocratic havelis . Havelis housed many families, had beautiful gateways, public rooms used by males and inner courtyards for women Havelis were later subdivided and sold, became shops/warehouses Colonial bungalows were for nuclear families, had separate servant quarters and women sat on verandas for supervising tailors and tradesmen .
Colonialism & the city Old Delhi Mughal canals and other water systems such as baolis(wells) broke down Shahjahani drains replaced by open surface drains This combined with rising population led to an overburdened system . .
Colonialism & the city dargahs, khangahs and idgahs Dargah- tomb of a Sufi saint hangah- SUTI lodge offen used as rest-house by travellers, or used for discussions Idgah- Open prayer place for Muslims-id prayers
Colonialism & the city Indraprastha . Lal Kot . Mehrauli Prithviraj chauhan Mohammad bin Tughlaq Yudhishthira e . Siri Jahanpanah Tughalaqabad .Firoz Shah Tughlad o Humayun . Shah Jahan . Firozabad . Dinpanah . Shahjahanabad Allaudin Khili . Anang Pal Tomar . Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq