Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
From trade to territory EXPANSION OF COMPANY RULE- 1757 to 1857 Key aspects Initially, main focus on TRADE EXPANSION. If this could be done without conquest, there is no need to control territories directly Rarely launched directmilitary attack Used political, economic & diplomatic methods. Annexation was last resort After BUXAR(1764), appointment of RESIDENTS in Indian states. Through them, Company controlled internal affairs-chosee successors, people to administrative posts Policies like SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE . .
From trade to territory SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE Indian rulers not allowed to keep independent army .Protection will be given by Company . Rulers had to pay for these 'subsidiary forces' sent by Company . If they don't, as a penalty Company will annex territory . In 1801, some parts of Awadh annexed on this pretext by Wellesley. Even Hyderabad
From trade to territory Facing TIGER OF MYSORE Mysore- Haidar Ali( 1761-1782) and son Tipu Sultan (1782-99) Whyi Mysore controlled trade to Malabar coast. Company bought pepper and cardamom from Malabar. Tipu Sultan stopped exports through ports of his kingdom. He also disallowed local merchants to trade with Company Established links with French to modernise his army .
From trade to territory So, FOUR ANGLO-MYSORE WARS (1767-69, 80-84, 90-92, 1799) 1799- Battle of SRIRANGAPATNAM- Company won Mysore placed under formerrulers- WODEYARS . .Mysore forced into a subsidiary alliance
From trade to territory Facing MARATHAS 1761-Marathas defeated in 3rd Battle of Panipat and their dream of rule from Delhi shattered Marathas divided into many states under different sardars- chiefs . . Different dynasties-Sindhias, Gaikwads, Bhonsle, Holkars, etc. All held together in a CON FEDERACY under a PESHWA- administrative+ military head- Pune
From trade to territory 1st Anglo-Maratha war ended in 1782 with no victor- Treaty of Salbai 2nd-1803 to 05- British gained Orissa and territories north of Yamuna- Agra & Delhi 3rd-1817-19-Marathas crushed. Peshwa sent to Bithur, near Kanpur and made a pensioner .
From trade to territory So early 19th century - Aggressive policy of terr expansion 1813-23- LORD HASTINGS- New policy of PARAMOUNTCY- British interests paramount when compared to Indian states . . This policy followed by later GG's . In late 1830's- British grew worried about RUSSIA who might expand & enter India from NW 1838-42- British war against Afghanistan- Indirectrule 1843-Sind taken over 1849- Punjab taken over. Till 1839, Maharaja Ranjit Singh prevented .
From trade to territory But this annexation wasn't always unchallenged. For e.g. Rani Channamma of Kitoor (in Ktk) resisted. She later died in prison
From trade to territory Changes in administration all this while WARREN HASTINGS (1773-85) British territory into 3 Presidencies-B,B,M-Each under GOVERNOR Supreme head-GG and WH was 1st GG WH brought reforms in JUSTICE SYSTEM Each district-2 courts- CRIMINAL(faujdari adalat) & CIVIL(diwani) European DC's presided over civil courts + Maulvis & pandits interpreted laws Criminal courts still under qazis and muftis, but supervised by collectors . .
From trade to territory Important as colonial rule rested on MILITARY STRENGTH Earlier-Mughal army- Cavalry was dominant-sawars Mughals didn't feel need of a trained infantry . Often rural areas supplied Mughals with infantry Change Mughal successor states- Awadh, Benaras-recruited infantry from rural areas (peasants) but professionally trained them British adopted this system-sepoy army .
From trade to territory A. B. C. 1st Anglo-Maratha war 2nd Anglo-Maratha war 3rd Anglo-Maratha war o Treaty of Bassein Treaty of Salbai Peshwa, Yashwant Rao Holkar and Bhonsles defeated .
Gratitude is the best attitude Rate/review/recommend the course