Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Ruling the countryside Till now we saw ElC had got DIWANI RIGHTS. As Diwan, they became chief financial administrator of that territory . Now it had 2 problems- . It had to use this land to maximise resources for itself. This revenue will help it to meetgrowing expenses of company It had to do this with CAUTION- It was an alien power. It understood that those who held local power couldn't be completely eliminated and had to be pacified.
Ruling the countryside Initially though it was It was not willing to set up any regular system of collection It merely focused on increasing revenue income. This increase will help it to buy cotton & silk cheap Diwan, it saw itself as a TRADER .So now instead of gold & silver, revenue from Bengal was used to buy cotton & silk Artisans were forced to sell goods to Company at low prices Peasants couldn'tpay what was demanded of them 1770-Famine came In short, Bengal economy was collapsing . .
Ruling the countryside They thought & thought- How do we increase production? After 2 decades- 1793- Idea of PERMANENT SETTLEMENT . Rajas & taluqdars recognised as ZAMINDARS . They had to collect revenue from peasants & give a FIXED AMOUNT to British .Goal- British got regular income + Thought that as demand for revenue wont increase, zamindar might invest in agriculture
Ruling the countryside So what went wrong? . Revenue fixed was so high- At times peasants and sometimes zamindars couldn'tpay it Zamindaris were then sold off at auctions So, zamindars didn'tinvest in land When market prices rose and cultivation expanded, British couldn'tget more revenue as revenue was FIXED (though income of zamindars increased) . . . .Zamindars didn'ttake the trouble of investment when they could just give the land to tenants and get rent out of it . Peasants got into trap of moneylenders. When peasant failed on his loan, he was evicted from his land
Ruling the countryside So one thing was certain- Revenue system had to change In today's UP, MACKENZIE came with a system that came into effect in 1822 He saw village as an important social institution in N.lndia He got revenue estimated in each village (mahal) This revenue demand was NOT permanent but revised timely Village headmenasked to collect the revenue rather than zamindar This was MAHALWARI SYSTEM . . . .
Ruling the countryside Similarly in S.INDIA- ryotwari system . Il scale by ALEXANDER RE developed by THOMAS MUNRO In south- No traditional zamindars- So settlement was directly with cultivators i.e. ryots British acted as paternal father figures for ryot But as revenue demand was high, peasants used to leave the countryside and run . .
Not just REVENUE SYSTEMS, even CROPPING PATTERNS changed . Indigo, opium ute in Bengal, tea in Ju Assam, cotton-Maharashtra How?-Lets study about indigo our indigo was used in-France, Britain-dye Only small amounts reached + Price was high . So dependence on alternative plant- woad (temperate) Woad producers used to ask their govts to ban indigo imports BUT-Indigo-rich blue color while woad-dull color So indigo cultivation began- France - St Domingue, Portueguese - Brazil and English -Jamaica . .
Ruling the countryside . Britain industrialised, cotton production grew, demand-grew . Existing cultivation of indigo from W.Indies & America collapse Now where do we get dye from?- GO TO INDIA while in 1788, only 30% indigoimported in Britainwas from India, by 1810 this share was 95%-JUST IMAGINE!! .This even led Company officials to invest in indigo. Many left jobs to look after indigo business Many came from Scotland to become planters .
Ruling the countryside Ryoti cultivation . Planters FORCED ryots into a contract either themselves/through village headmern Signatories to get cash advances at low interest + Will get seed & drill + Promise to cultivate it on 25% area + New loan when crop will be delivered . Peasants tempted by loans but soon realised reality- cycle of loans . Other issues- .Planters said to cultivate indigo on best soils-rice . Indigo-deep roots-exhausted soil quickly
Ruling the countryside British reaction . Feared anotherrebellion after 1857 . Notice issued that they wont be compelled . Brought in military to protect planters . Set up Indigo Commission which held planters guilty of coercion . Commission asked to fulfill existing contracts but not in future After Bengal riots, planters turned to Bihar Coming of synthetic dye came further as blow to planters but they tried expansion in misplaced hope . .Later Gandhiji's Champaran Satyagraha will happen