Summary of Our Pasts-llI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
How, When & Where Is history only synonymous with dates? History is record of CHANGES that occurred in past These changes took place at some time. So, record of this TIME i.e. DATES is indeed important But what if the change took place over a period of time? For e.g. Establishment of British rule in India OR Start of national movement These were PROCESSES and not sudden precise changes . For e.g. .
How, When & Where Then why to study dates? . There was a time when history was an account of big rulers, when they began their rules and the battles they won. All these were recorded as precise events by their biographers So, when we record history in terms of life of rulers, dates indeed become important . . But history as a subject is not just constrained to rulers.t involves common people, their means of livelihood, etc.
How, When & Where A look at our own history We often are used to study British colonial times in terms of rules of Governor Generals & Viceroys . So, we study for e.g. Lord Dalhousie and the events that took place when he was Gov-General and so on Why so? . It is easier to study it this way because then we can establisha coherence and weave a wonderful story!! So anything that disturbs the flow of this story is generally not recorded. So events perceived as less important such as lives of tribals, peasants etc. arent recorded in a precise manner .
How, When & Where Another approach came when JAMES MILL, a Scottish economist & political philosopher published A HISTORY OF BRITISH INDIA. He divided it into 3 periods- HINDU, MUSLIM and BRITISH So, this meant that he didn'tsee change from Mughal Rule to Company Rule as the beginning of colonialism . .Ra replaced by democratic British who represented civilized people This reflected his IDEA OF CHANGE .
How, When & Where Wasitl indeed o Hindu history andthena Mosilmhistorya . We must understand that religion of rulers doesn't define the period of history. Also, multiple faiths co-existed at all times So, in contrast, other historians divided it as ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL & MODERN . Modernity is associated with forces such as - democracy, liberty equality, etc. So can British rule be called as MODERN for Indians. Not really Also, was medievalism only bout barbarism and despotism? Did not ancient India believe in rationality? Did not medieval India believe in aesthetic sense? So some historians refer to the last period as COLONIAL
How, When & Where Colonialism- Subjugation of one country by another, not just politically, but also economically, socially and culturally onl Pamous oll the wod Ct th We must understand that though political independence was achieved, we still continue to use many symbols of British rule in other realms- Be IT Use of English, fea, land-record keeping, etc.
How, When & Where HOW do we know about all this? What are the sources? . Most important source- British official records . They believed in both writing minor details of administration as well as preserving them .Why?- To enable proper study of country they were ruling . So record-rooms were established everywhere-be it tehsildar's office, secretariats or law courts For preservation, museums and archives were made National Archives of India established in 1920's Initially calligraphists helped, then printing made things easier .
How, When & Where t just administrative r . No ecords . Official records included SURVEYS and CENSUS records as well These includedrevenue surveys in villages, surveys of topography, flora, fauna, local histories and cropping patterns So we had botanical, zoological, archaeological surveys Census gave info on demography, castes, tribes and religions preseni . . Note how all the instruments that were used in surveys are placed tn the emphasse the scientific nature of the project Soreground t . OUR PASTS-
How, When & Where State of Forest Report is a biennial report published by which of the following? A. Botanical Survey of India B. Zoological Survey of India C. IUCN D. None of the above