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People and Environment Previous year Questions with Related Notes, Current Affairs Target JRF (for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1) By Navdeep Kaur
Contents o Basics 2004 to 2017 Previous year Questions o Related Notes o Current Affairs
People and Environme The term environment has been derived from a French word "Environia" means to surround. e It refers to both abiotic (physical or non-living) and biotic (living) environment. e The word environment means surroundings, in which organisms live. Environment and the organisms are two dynamic and complex component of nature. Environment regulates the life of the organisms including human beings. Human beings interact with the environment more vigorously than other living beings. Ordinarily environment refers to the materials and forces that surrounds the living organism. .
Components of Environment: Environment mainly consists of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. But it can be roughly divided into two types such as (a) Micro environment and (b) Macro environment. It can also be divided into two other types such as (c) Physical and (d) biotic environment. (a) Micro environment refers to the immediate local surrounding of the organism. (b) Macro environment refers to all the physical and biotic conditions that surround the organism externally. (c) Physical environment refers to all abiotic factors or conditions like temperature, light, rainfall, soil, minerals etc. It comprises of atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere. (d) Biotic environment includes all biotic factors or living forms like plants, animals, Micro-organisms.
Components or segments of environment are given below: 1. Atmosphere - the sphere of air. 2. Hydrosphere -the sphere of water. 3. Lithosphere - the sphere of soil, rock, etc. 4. Biosphere - the sphere of living organisms.
Major constituents of dry air, by volume Gas Volume(A) Name Nitrogen oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Methane Formula in ppmv(B) in % N2 780,840 78.084 02 209,460 20.946 Ar 9,340 CO2 400 Ne 18.18 He 5.24 CH4 1.79 0.9340 0.04 0.001818 0.000524 0.000179 Not included in above dry atmosphere: Water vapor(C) H20 10-50.000(D) 0.001%-5%(D)
Dec 2004 1. Global warming during winter becomes more pronounced at the: (A) Equator (B) Poles (C) Tropic of Cancer (D) Tropic of Capricorn Answer D The five major circles of latitude are, from north to south: The Arctic Circle (66 33' 38" N) The Tropic of Cancer (23 26' 22" N) . . The Equator (0 latitude) I warming during winter The Antarctic Circle (66 33' 38" S) Tropic of Cancer at which the Sun appears directly perpendicular on June 21 in an event that is called Summer Solstice.
2. In the study of man-environment interaction, the statement of Miss Semple that the humans are solely the product of their environment", is: (A) An opinion (B) A prejudice (C) A fact (D) A widely accepted phenomenon Answer C 3. In analysis of man-environment relationship Pragmatic Possibilism implies that: (A) There is no limit for man to exploit resources of earth (B) There are limited possibilities to explore earth's resources (C) The man has to watch and assess the situation and then go ahead with resource utilization (D) The man has to keep in mind only his basic needs while planning to harness the potential of resourceful earth
Answer C Pragmatism considers thought an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics-such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science-are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes. The philosophy of pragmatism "emphasizes the practical application of ideas by acting on them to actually test them in human experiences". Pragmatism focuses on a "changing universe rather than an unchanging one as the Idealists, Realists and Thomists had claimed"
4. Arrange Column Il in proper sequence so as to match wt I and choose the correct answer from the codes given belo Columnl Activity (a) Hearing (b) Whispering (c) Interference with sleep (iii) 60 dB (d) Normal talk Column II Noise Level (i) 30 dB (i) 1 dB (iv) 30-50 dB Codes:
Very Loud Painful 150 dBP = fireworks at 3 feet (impulse noise) 140 dBP = firearms (impulse noise) 140 dBA-jet engine 130 dBA = jackhammer 120 dBA = jet plane takeoff, siren Extremely Loud 110 dBA = maximum output of some MP3 players, 80-90 dBA = blow-dryer, kitchen blender, food processor National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that workers in noisy environments 85 dBA or louder for an 8-hour workday limit their exposure at this loudness level. Loud (safe for 24 hours or more) 70 dB = busy traffic, vacuum cleaner, alarm clock model airplane, chain saw 106 dBA = gas lawn mower, snowblower 100 dBA = hand drill, pneumatic drill 90 dBA = subway, passing motorcycle Moderate (safe for 24 hours or more) 60 dBA = typical conversation, dishwasher, clothes dryer 50 dBA = moderate rainfall 40 dBA = quiet room Faint (safe for 24 hours or more) 30 dB = whisper, quiet library
5. The maximum loss of forest lands in India is caused by: (A) River valley projects (B) Industries (C) Means of transportation (D) Agriculture Answer A
People and Environment 2005, 2006 MCQs with Related Notes, Current Affairs Target JRF (for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1) By Navdeep Kaur
4. Largest soil group of India is: (A) Red soil (B) Black soil (C) Sandy soil (D) Mountain soil soils Alluvial soil: Sand content decreases fromm west to east of the country New alluvium is termed as Khadar and old alluvium is termed as Bhangar. Colour: Light Grey to Ash Grey Texture: Sandy to silty loam or clay. Rich in: potash Poor in: phosphorous. Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, oilseed etc are cultivated mainly Major classification of Indian Alluvial soil [43%] Red soil [18.5%] Black / regur soil [15%] Arid / desert soil . Answer C . Laterite soil . Saline soil . Peaty marshy soil e Forest soil Sub-mountain sol Snowfields
Laterite soil: Name from Latin word Later, which means Brick Become so soft when wet and so hard when dried. In the areas of high temperature and high rainfall. . Forest soil: Regions of high rainfall. Humus content is less and thus the soil is acidic. . Formed as a result of high leaching. Lime and silica will be leached away from the soil. Organic matters of the soil will be removed fast by the bacteria as it is high temperature and humus will be taken quickly by the trees and other plants. Thus, humus content is low Rich in: Iron and Aluminum Deficient in: Nitrogen, Potash, Potassium, Lime, Humus Mountain soil: In the mountain regions of the country Immature soil with low humus and acidic. . . . Colour: Red colour due to iron oxide. Rice, Ragi, Sugarcane and Cashew nuts are cultivated mainly.
Desert / arid soil: . Seen under Arid and Semi-Arid conditions Deposited mainly by wind activities. . High salt content. Peaty marshy soil: Areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity. Growth of vegetation is very less. A large quantity of dead organic matter/humus which makes the soil alkaline Lack of moisture and Humus. Kankar or Impure Calcium carbonate content is high which restricts the infiltration of water. . . Nitrogen is insufficient and Phosphate is normal. . Texture: Sandy Colour: Red to Brown. . Heavy soil with black colour.
5. Main pollutant of the Indian coastal water is (A) oil spil (B) municipal sewage (C) industrial effluents (D) aerosols Answer C 6. Human ear is most sensitive to noise in the following frequency ranges: (A) 1-2 KHz (B) 100-500 Hz (C) 10-12 KHz (D) 13-16 KHz Answer A is given in UGC answer key but answer should be none of above Answer Should be 1KHz to 4 KHz
7 Which species of chromium is toxic in water: (A) Cr+2 (B) Cr+3 (C) Cr6 (D) Cr is non-toxic element Answer C The World Health Organization-recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for chromium (VI) is 0.05 milligrams per litre. Hexavalent chromium is also one of the substances whose use is restricted by the European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive.
The total population of Northeast India is 46 million. 68 percent of the total population live in Assam alone State # Population # Males # Females # Sex Ratio# Literacy%# Rural Population # Urban Population Area(kr ) # Density (/km)# Arunachal Pradesh 1,383727 713912 669 815 938 Assam Manipur Meghalaya 2,966,889 1491 832 1475057 989 Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura 83 743 78 438 22.327 22.479 65 38 2.19 79.21 74.43 91.33 79.55 81 42 8722 870087 23 216 288 1,590,820 1 864,711 447.567 1647 249 480 981 2653,453 227 881 3439,240 575.968 454 111 41.006 342,787 59,870 545,750 17 397 122 132 52 119 86 31 205,576 15939 443 15 266,133 958 250,390 290,171 20219 992 21,08 097206 555,339 5416 976 1.978,502 024649953.853931 10,577323070 287 507 890 ,673 917 1874 376 1,799,541 90 16,579 7,096 0486 350
Answer A Rivers on the Indian peninsular plateau flow from West to East because of the gradient of the land. However, Narmada and Tapi flow in opposite direction because they do not flow on the plateau surface but in rift valleys and these valleys happen to have an opposite gradient. There are three main reasons: 1. Gradient of the terrain 2. Presence of rift valleys 3. Mountain ranges which deflect rivers. 5. Soils in the Mahanadi delta are less fertile than those in the Godavari delta because of: (A) erosion of top soils by annual floods (B) inundation of land by sea water (C) traditional agriculture practices (D) the derivation of alluvial soil from red-soil hinterland Answer A
People and Environm Dec 2006, June, Dec 2007 MCQs with Related Notes, Current Affairs Target JRF (for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1) By Navdeep Kaur
December 2006 1. The most significant impact of volcanic eruption has been felt in the form of: (A) change in weather (B) sinking of islands (C) loss of vegetation (D) extinction of animals Answer A
Positive and negative effects of an volcanic eruption Negative Positive The dramatic scenery created by volcanic eruptions Many lives can be lost as a result of a volcanic attracts tourists. This brings income to an area.eruption The lava and ash deposited during an eruption breaks down to provide valuable nutrients for the with rainwater or melting snow, fast moving If the ash and mud from a volcanic eruption mix soil. This creates very fertile soil which is good for mudflows are created. These filows are called lahars Lava flows and lahars can destroy settlements and clear areas of woodland or agriculture. agriculture The high level of heat and activity inside the Earth, close to a volcano, can provide opportunities for generating geothermal energy Human and natural landscapes can be destroyed and changed forever
4. The maximum emission of pollutants from fuel sources in India is caused by (A) Coal (B) Firewood (C) Refuse burning (D) Vegetable waste product Answer A 5. The urbanisation process accounts for the wind in the urban centres during nights to remain: (A) faster than that in rural areas (B) slower than that in rural areas (C) the same as that in rural areas (D) cooler than that in rural areas Answer A
3. Comparative Environment Impact Assessment study is to be conducted for: (A) the whole year (B) three seasons excluding monsoon (C) any three seasons (D) the worst season Answer A Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) apply criteria to minimize the negative effects of projects on the environment 4. Sea level rise results primarily due to: (A) Heavy rainfall (B) Melting of glaciers (C) Submarine volcanism (D) Seafloor spreading Answer B
3. Which one of the following is appropriate for natural hazard mitigation Ru? (A) International AID (B) Timely Warning System (C) Rehabilitation (D) Community Participation Answer B 4. Slums in metro-city are the result of: (A) Rural to urban migration (B) Poverty of the city-scape (C) Lack of urban infrastructure (D) Urban-governance Answer A
5. The great Indian Bustard bird is found in: (A) Thar Desert of India (B) Coastal regions of India (C) Temperate Forests in the Himalaya (D) Tarai zones of the Himalayan Foot Answer A Great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), large bird of the bustard family (Otididae), one of the heaviest flying birds in the world. The great Indian bustard inhabits dry grasslands and scrublands on the Indian subcontinent; its largest populations are found in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
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4. Chemical weathering of rocks is largely dependent upon: (A) high temperature (B) strong wind action (C) heavy rainfall (D) glaciation Answer C The primary agents in chemical weathering are water, oxygen, and acids Chemical weathering is the weakening and subsequent disintegration of rock by chemical reactions. These reactions include oxidation, hydrolysis, and carbonation. These processes either form or destroy minerals, thus altering the nature of the rock's mineral composition
3. Which one of the following is not associated with earthquakes? (A) Focus (B) Epicenter (C) Seismograph (D) Swells Answer D
June 2009 1. Environmental impact assessment TaUTTHI 3T is an objective analysis of the probable changes in: (A) physical characteristics of the environment (B) biophysical characteristics of the environment (C) socio-economic characteristics of the environment (D) all the above Answer D
5. Indian coastal areas experienced Tsunami disaster in the year: (A) 2005 (B) 2004 (C) 2006 (D) 2007 Answer B