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Course: Expected Questions Geo-Mains Paper GS- 1 Presented by Ashna Sisodia
Question 15: How did Northern Plains of India originate? Describe their praminent Ceatures anda's Words)
Northern Plains Northern Plains JAMMU&KASHMIR HI PRADESH CHINA TIBET NJAB ND HARYANA BHUTAN UTTAR PRADESH RAJASTHAN MEG BIHAR BANGLADESH TRI HARKHAN WEST
Answer: Origin: The great Northern Plains of India are an aggradation surface of great extent formed after the Himalayas. They are comparatively of recent origin and are believed to have formed by the filling up of a depression resulting from the uplifting of the Himalayas, by deposition of sediments brought by swift flowing Himalayan rivers, originated in Himalayas. Features: The most characteristic feature of the great plains of Northern India is their extreme horizontality. From the geomorphological aspect there is no difference between the Indus basin and the Ganga - Brahmaputra basin.
They are classified into four distinct divisions: 1. Bhabar belt: made up of pebbles and boulders, the streams flow underground, adjacent to foothills 2. Terai belt: composed of new alluvium, region is damped and thickly forested and receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and has a variety of wildlife. 3. Bangar Belt: composed of old alluvium, forms Gangetic delta, covered by laterite deposits 4. Khadar Belt: made up of new alluvium of the flood zones.
Economic Importance of Northern Plains: Northern Plains produces 60% of food in India. It is home to around 65 crore people. Himalayan forests have several wildlife species, and these forests are also having species for medicinal use. Agriculture, livestock, power plants, industries and tourism provide employment to more than half of population in India.
Question 16: Which factors cause soil erosion, especially in India? Examine the measures taken to conserve soil in India. (200 Words)
Important Facts: SOIL EROSION FACTS: 1. Nearly 30 per cent per cent of the country's total geographical area is undergoing degradation (ISRO report) 2. The main culprit is water erosion (26 percent) 3. India has committed itself to the U.N. Convention on Combating Desertification that it would fully stop land degradation by 2030
Answer : Causes of soil erosion in India 1. Topography: Hilly regions suffer from erosion due to heavy rainfall which causes slip erosion and thus landslides, and from the rivers which flow at a fast speed compared to the plains. The plains, even though they get reduced rainfall, soil erosion occurs due to over flowing of rivers 2. Rainfall: The sudden and continuous nature of monsoons add in soil erosion, esp. in plains where lack of forest cover. Also, the prolonged dry spell which precedes monsoon causes sheet erosion when monsoon occurs 3. Nature of soil: Porous water absorbing soil are least affected by erosion while impervious soil erode gradually by action of water.
4. Human factors like. 1.1. Overgrazing: removal of grass by animals makes the top soil more susceptible to erosion. 1.2. Deforestation: For mining activities, infrastructure building, loosed the soil and cause erosion 1.3. Improper farming techniques: Traditional methods of ploughing make water more easier for running down causing erosion. Most of Indian agriculture consist of small and marginal farmers who use traditional methods.