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Course: Expected Questions Geo-Mains Paper GS- 1 Presented by Ashna Sisodia
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Question 31: Critically discuss the effects of deforestation on Indian economy. (200 Words)
Answer 31 Recent study which observed that Deforestation in Northern mid attitudes has caused a decreased of 1/5th of Monsoon in India ,though raised moderately rain in Southern Hemisphere and Australia and South Africa. It is evident that Deforestation has the impact on the Indian economy which Still largely depend on the Agriculture and Monsoon . Some of effects of Deforestation are: Greater Pollution or carbon emission with no carbon capture increased the Health burden of the country Greater amount of funds will be diverted for the climate change, resilient crops which otherwise could have helped in raising the incomes Monsoon plays key role in Monetary policy of RBI thus tight and dear economy may harm the market sentiments Like after ELNINO ,ENSO
Deforestation caused increased land pressure as more tribal becomes share croppers thus increasing of lower strata in the economy Deforestation and Encroachment to natural resources like Wetlands etc. also causes disasters like Deluge in Uttarakhand etc. Forest, tress preserve and withhold the nutrients in the soil. Absence causes greater use of fertiliser, which is generally subsidised in India~70k cr subsidy Tourism and Aviation are also affected as, Eco tourism is affected , also Leads to job loss unemployment etc. As cited in recent AAI report. It also causes Change in rainfall, crop failure , pushing farmer s to migrate already stressed overburdened cities, thereby causing slums , poor hygiene crime, prostitution ,social inequalities etc. In totality, depleting the Nature's wealth also decreases the health of its Human And Economy
Question 32: Discuss the Cauvery dispute. (200 words)
Answer;: The Cauvery water dispute, which has been a bone of contention between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for decades now, has again led to violence in Karnataka after Supreme Court pronounced its modified order recently The Supreme Court has modified the amount of water Karnataka has to release to Tamil Nadu, to 12,000 cusecs a day from the earlier ordered 15,000 cusecs a day. Karnataka has been seeing often violent protests against the apex court's order. What is the dispute? The Cauvery river originates in Karnataka's Kodagu district, flows into Tamil Nadu and reaches the Bay of Bengal at Poompuhar. Parts of three Indian states Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka - and the Union Territory of Pondicherry lie in the Cauvery basin. Initially, the dispute was between Karnataka and TN but later Kerala and Puducherry also entered the fray.
Pre-independence issue: The issue dates back to 1892 when an agreement was filed between Madras Presidency and Mysore for arbitration. Later, attempts were renewed to arbitrate between the two states under supervision of Government of India and second agreement was signed in 1924. Under the control of the British, a 1924 agreement which laid down the directives of the Krishnarajsagar dam was signed. It gave both, the Madras Presidency and the Princely state of Mysore the right to use to use the water of Cauvery. However, owing to Madras' objection to the construction of the Krishnarajasagar dam, the agreement also allowed it to build the Mettur dam According to the 1924 agreements the river water is distributed as 75% with Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, 23% to Karnataka and remaining to go to Kerala. Consequently, the arrangement also lead to the restrictions being put on the area that could be safely irrigated by both states using the Cauvery water.
Post-independence efforts: In the pre-independence era, these disputes were resolved by the British by arbitrary talks and discussions. But the real problem started when in, 1974, Karnataka (Mysore) asserted that the 1924 agreement entailed a discontinuation of the water supply to Tamil Nadu (Madras) after 50 years. Karnataka argued that since the river originated there, it was entitled to use the water as it deemed fit and was not obligated to follow the agreements made by the maharaja of Mysore under a colonial government. It also expressed that the 1924 agreement was highly skewed in favour of Tamil Nadu. Karnataka demanded that the river water should be divided according to international rules, i.e., in equal portions. They suggested that 94% could be divided equally between them and the rest could be distributed to Kerala and Puducherry. However Tamil Nadu wanted to stick to the original distribution which was laid down in the 1924 agreement.
Cauvery waters tribunal: Owing to Tamil Nadu government's appeal to the Central government in 1986 to constitute a tribunal for solving the issue under InterState Water Disputes Act, 1956, the Cauvery Waters Tribunal was established on June, 2, 1990. In 2007, after sixteen years of hearing and an interim order later, the Tribunal announced its final order. It concluded that the water availability in Cauvery stood at 740 tmc ft Tamil Nadu would be allocated 419 tmc ft, water (56.62%) and Karnataka 270 tmc ft. (36.48%). Kerala was given 30 tmc ft (4.05%) and Puducherry 7 tmc ft (0.94%) However, both Tamil Nadu and Karnataka filed a review petition before the Tribunal. In 2012, Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh, as chairman of Cauvery River Authority, directed the Karnataka government to release 9,000 cusecs of water daily. . The Supreme Court slammed state government as it failed to comply with the order. The government offered an unconditional apology and started the release of water leading to widespread violent protests.