Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course: Expected Questions Geo-Mains Paper GS- 1 Presented by Ashna Sisodia
About Me: From Chandigarh, India o CSE Btech, UIET kurukshetra UPSC CSE mains qualified Interests Reading and Gym addict e Rate, Review and Recommend https://unacademy.in/user/AshnaSisodia
Question 39: Write a note on the concerns that influenced town planning in the nineteenth century in India. (200 Words)
Answer: A diverse process of urbanisation occurred in 19th century that helped in town planning in India swayed by different factors which can be enumerated as follows: Strategic importance for business: With growing concern of business and trade including raw materials; the places nearby sea became strategically important for urbanization. Bombay; madras; Calcutta are example Development of railway: Arrival of railway fuelled to the urbanization process. Every railway station was formed as storehouse of raw materials and gradually it transformed into a urban area. Mirzapur; Zamalpur Bareilly were examples of railway colonies. Administrative concern: New administrative buildings fortifying the status of British; quarters of officers called " bungalow" were built spurring the urbanization process.
Social disparity: The racial discrimination of British led to differentiate town planning with different building structures as they call the buildings of poor " black pagoda" Revenue concern: For revenue concern; British introduced municipal tax establishing municipal authority which initiated a new era of urbanisation. Cotton trade: Industrial revolution and American civil war helped increasing cotton production in India leading to many urban trade centres. e Urban planning: For extension of trade and to collect data about social and economic status of people census was begun which was a new concern of urbanisation plan to distinguish people living in rural and urban areas. Emerging middle class: Growing demand was felt for clerks; peons and other officers which facilitated English educational institutions and communication was development for their daily arrival and departure from home to office or institutions.
Entertainment: For entertainment purpose; theatre and clubs were established leading to growth of urbanisation with different towns. e Sanity: For the concern of spreading diseases from rural to urban areas British took development initiatives in many backward areas . Climatic influence: Due to moderate and healthy climate British started building houses in hill stations like Himachal, Darjeeling etc. Defence: British built St George; fort William and choose hill areas for development process from defence purpose. Cantonments were established in several places e Civil lines: For development purposes British created civil lines clearing rural areas. Lifestyle: A new wealthy class emerged who built houses on British style in urban areas; organized different programs with drink and Western food for influencing the British officials that initiated another process of urbanization . Thus lots of concern helped the growth of urbanisation in this era.
Question 40: How an urban region is defined in India? Some commentators argue that considering the flaws in definitions, India has more urban centres than what government estimates reveal. Critically examine why. (200 Words)
Answer: In India urban region is defined as having population of above 5000, densit over 400 persons/sq. km, and at most 25% people engaged in agriculture. Adhering to above the urban ratio comes to be 31%. Deficiencies in the above ' criteria as cited by critics are economic institutions such as insurance and banking institutions . administrative institutions such as municipal bodies, various departments and their branches, adalats, police stations, various associations, civil society and NGOs headquarters and branches services such as education schools and societies, health care services in the . form of hospitals and care centres, water and sanitation supply, proper transport mechanism and widespread communication and information technology penetration networking approach with all the above interlinking into a coordinated sphere
Leaving aside these aspects one hugely underestimates the urban potential of India. Mere adhering to the 5000 or more people norm raises the urban ratio to 47% and if 2000 people then ratio surges to 71% which has widespread ramifications Proper targeting of policies 2. various programmes launched will be devoid of inclusivity wrong targeting results in inefficient results 4. planning process gets hampered relating to urbanisation, industrialisation, setting up various institutions, various policies such as PURA 5. building up of smart cities and digital India programmes can be affected It is clear that urbanization based on the agricultural criteria needs to wither away, as many villages with high agricultural participation by people have good institutions with leading luxurious lives. This westernized concept imitating needed to be stopped and an indigenous way has to be recognized and formulated that better suits Indian lands
Thank You Very Much Please Rate & Review Knowledge is the new currency. w currency Spread the word & Be a Part of Education Revolution