Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course: Expected Questions Geo-Mains Paper GS- 1 Presented by Ashna Sisodia
Question 17: What do you understand by land degradation? Suggest measures for reduction of land degradation. (200 Words)
Answer: Land degradation is a process of change in characters of land where in the productivity, richness and composition of land is destroyed especiall;y beyond human use, Primary reasons for land degradation are excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides by farmers, dumping of solid and chemical waste in urban areas and Soil erosion Measures for reduction of Land degradation: 1. Reduction in use of fertilizers and pesticides and encourage organic farming 2. Proper disposal of solid waste like domestic waste in cities and towns, Methods like disposal through incinerators can be used and ensuring no release of toxic gases.
3. Soil erosion must be checked through measures like Watershed management, afforestation, agroforestry, contour bunding etc. practices. 4. Preventing and taking mitigating measures for disasters like Bhopal gas tragedy. Large amounts of chemical releases effect land adversely . 5. Regulation of industries and their waste disposal. Strict avoidance of disposal into nearby lands which will have harmful effects on local population, flora and fauna. 6. Conversion of agricultural lands to activities like growing shrimps prawns etc. must be reduced and regulated as it causes irreversible damage due to salinization of the land in the process. Land must be maintained for easy rejuvenation and should be in harmony with nature otherwise the effects of it on humans are irreversible.
Question 18: What do you understand by river regime? Explain the differences between river regimes of peninsular rivers and the Himalayan rivers. (150 Words)
INDUS INLAND D RAINA IN RAJASTHAN DRANMAPUTRA SUB-BASIN GANGA MAHI ARMAD 1 TAPI NAHANADI SUDEANAREKHA SABARNATI GODAVARI ORAHMANI-HAITARAN WEST-FLOWING RIVERS F ON TAPI TO TADR KRISHNA AST-FLOWING RIVERS BETWEEN HAHANADI & PCNNAR 692) FAST.FLOWING WEST-FLOWING RIVES TA DR TO KANYA KUMARI PENNAR& KANYAKYMAR (4112
Answer: The pattern of the seasonal flow of water in a river channel over a year is Known as river regime There are striking differences between HR and PR river regimes as listed below: 1. Origin/Source The HR are fed by both glaciers and rainfall and are thus perennial in nature. The peninsular rivers are fed by rainfall only and thus rain dependent. 2. Catchment Area and Max. flow: Large catchment areas of HRs ensure the maximum flow during the rainy seasons and their maximum flow is far greater than that of the PRs.
3. Variations: Owning to the huge variations in the rainfall in the peninsular plateau, the regimes of different PRs vary widely whereas almost all HRs maintain a sizeable flow. 4. Gradual increase/decrease in flow Ganga (HR) has a minimum flow during Jan/June and max. flow during Aug/Sept. and gradual steady fall afterwards, whereas Narmada (PR) has very low flow from Jan-July and a sharp rise in August and again a sudden fall in October
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