Ashna Sisodia is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Course: Expected Questions Geo-Mains Paper GS- 1 Presented by Ashna Sisodia
Question 19: What are the major differences between Peninsular rivers and the Himalayan rivers of India? Do you think linking of peninsular rivers with the Himalayan rivers is a feasible idea? Examine. (200 Words)
Indian Drainage System Brah Himalayan Rivers Peninsular River Antecedent (Older Non- antecedent than Himalaya (Younger than Himalaya) West flowing East lowing
Difference: The Himalayan Rivers rise at high elevations and are fed by the eternal snow of the Himalayan glaciers. The Deccan Rivers rise at much lower heights in the Western Ghats and other mountain ranges and are rain fed. The Himalayan rivers flow through young topography, and as they emanate from great heights, their erosive power is more. They frequently change course and are continuously shaping the valleys through which they flow. The peninsular rivers flow through comparatively more stable land and channels through which they flow have already reached base levels.
Linking Rivers: India has 18% of world population, and only 4% of water resources. The river is an integral part of human settlements, their lives, landscape, society, culture, history and religion Merits of Linking: 1. Large water resources are unevenly distributed so waters can be managed 2. Flood Control by creating dams, reservoirs, etc. possible 3. Power generation is possible, by mini - hydro plants and Solar plants floating of surface waters, 4. Employment generation, growth in Inland waterways.
Demerits: I. By spending 50 % of GDP it can take 10-15 years in completion, so it will make water more costly, 2. Loss of Flora and Fauna 3. Thousands of acres land acquisition is practically impossible, it can create human resettlement issues, and loss of cultural habitats. So, though Supreme Court has ordered to interlink rivers, and government is showing interest in it, I shall suggest taking enhanced water conservation measures instead of going forward with river -linking project.
Question 20: Write a critical note on river pollution in India and the measures taken by the Union government to clean polluted rivers. (200 Words)
Answer: Rivers, often termed as the arteries of the countries are important source of Livelihood , habitat to different people organism. However pollution levels has caused the havoc on life of rivers.
Ways of River pollution: 1. run off from the farms/agri fields, Such contains the Fertilisers causes the Eutrophication Increased level of Chemical also enters the living organism and multiplies causing bio magnification 3. Various fertilisers which enter the rivers get disturbed by the Deep river fishing , causing the articles to move up and causes decreased level of transparency , thus death of many organism at the bottom 4. increased pollution also affect the Health of marine lives
Measures Namami Ganga , Ganga action plan , Maile Yamuna Plan Swachh Bharat Kosh to be exempted from 80G IT 1961 Removing/penalising the tanneries ,distilleries , who do not follow the water disposal procedures New EMLA,NEMA,SEMA which will replace Air ,water act which had various hard provisions/punishment for polluters seldom used/awarded DBT will ensure fund directly to farmer rather fertiliser subsidy , which will be efficiently reduced lowering the surface run off Various Codes in plantation like PPC by tea board to ensure safe chemical to be used in activities of cultivation Use of Solar Powered Insecticides which kill the pests rather fumigating them on plants ultimately gets mixed to the soil, water> river.