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Framework for the Governance

Political ideology is a dynamic term that comprises different meanings based on region, culture, tradition, people, etc. This article provides in-depth information related to it.

Political ideology is a dynamic concept that combines ethical values, doctrines, belief systems, social movements, or larger groups. These provide the framework for society’s proper functioning and give a layout for social orders. 

Political ideologies come under the philosophy that deals with the government, state, justice, legal rights, and amendments. It provides support to authorities to bring a legitimate society. It also focuses on the rights and freedom offered by the government to citizens. 

Types of political ideologies 

Throughout the years, many thinkers and philosophers have proposed a variety of ideologies through which government can be organised. However, in the contemporary world, scholars recommend only these four kinds of ideologies. There are various kinds of political ideologies, but mainly four are found around the world. They are:

  • Anarchism
  • Absolutism
  • Liberalism
  • Conservatism

The principles underlined under these are exclusively utilised.These four main political ideologies have played vital roles in shaping government and movements. 


Brief descriptions about these major ideologies are provided below: 


This kind of ideology consists of principles based upon the voluntary actions taken by citizens. These ideologies do not support any form of authority or involuntary system that prohibits the rights of any citizen. It does not believe in a state with unsatisfactory, unfair, and forceful notions against its people. Generally, it is referred to as anti-capitalism and socialism. 


According to this ideology, every form of government is harmful and oppressive and should be nullified completely. One more ideology related to this is ‘Nihilism,’ which states that any form of government or societal structure should be destroyed periodically to maintain the social framework and initiate a new form. 

Many times, both Anarchism and Nihilism are directly associated with each other and support socialism. They believe in revolution and are against turmoil and terror. 


Historically, these kinds of political ideologies were prevalent in the western world. Absolutism dominates the whole state and government at all levels. Additionally, the dictator has the power to affect the lives of people directly. They are called by a varied number of names, including the king, emperor, sultan, prince, etc. In many cultures, the ruler was considered as God or a form of God. People thought that rulers had every right to do anything, and God had chosen them to govern the state. In these cases, the caesaropapism strategy is used where the ruler is responsible and heads for both state authority and religious authority. 

Many thinkers have supported the ideals of absolutism. According to the Greek philosopher Plato, any state should be governed by a sole ruler who had a place in the hearts of people. In history, Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher considered the most influential and proponent of absolutism. He also mentioned some viewpoints in his book Leviathan (1651) that people without any authority or government were awful, uncivilized, and short, and even they should follow their absolute rulers whether he was oppressive or supportive. 

The main focus of this kind of political structure is on a strong structure without any chaos or disorder; a proper or well-developed law and order must be conformed by everyone; a system of hierarchy (power structure) and power should be held by elite groups only; ancient institutions are more respectable than new ideas. 


Liberalism is a combination of political and ethical principles that serve the citizens based on an equal rights system, liberty, consent, and equality irrespective of class, caste, race, gender, etc. 

During the early 1500s, a lot of change happened in the western culture and society that led to the establishment of new ideologies. The causes of transformations were the discovery of America, the rise of Protestantism, the free market economy system, and the beginning stages of scientific change that transformed European countries. A new way of thinking process was another factor for these changes. 


It is also called Classical Conservatism. It is the kind of socio-cultural and political ideology that inclines to conserve ancient social institutions. 

The main doctrine of this political ideology may differ per the regions and their culture and traditions. It began during the French Revolution in European countries. It is different from the American Conservatism philosophy.

A book written by Edmund Burke, a British member of parliament, had some content related to classical conservatism. He and some other conservatives supported the ideals and disagreed with liberalism. They stated that because of liberalism, culture and traditions were destroyed. They believed that modern conversion due to liberalism and capitalism attacked the ancient traditions. 

Apart from these four, there are political ideologies followed by various states and governments, such as socialism, authoritarian, communitarian, corporatism, capitalism, democratic etc. 


Since different governments or nations or states follow different forms of political ideologies that bring variety in the structure globally. 

Political ideologies provide the framework for the proper functioning and management of the government of any state or nation. Throughout the years, many philosophers have given varied forms of political ideologies that are aligned to the regulations of the nation. These are of various kinds or types such as liberalism, socialism, anarchism, conservatism, democratic, etc. 


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