Demography is defined as the study of human populations and changes in the population owing to certain factors such as fertility, mortality, and migration. This discipline deals with different aspects of the population, such as population density, age structure, sex ratio, spatial distribution, and composition. Without having demographic data, it is very difficult for any country to plan proper strategies for managing important fields such as healthcare, education, transport, etc. In India, in addition to censuses, surveys are used to collect data on Demographics.
Broad Classification of Demography
There are mainly two types of demographics. One is Formal Demography which deals with quantitative aspects of the population. The other type is Social demography, which deals with the population’s economic, political, and social aspects. Demographic studies of all types depend on an enumeration or the process of counting. Demographics uses surveys and censuses for the systematic data collection of a territory. Formal demography is the measurement and quantitative analysis of population change. Social demography deals with the wider causes and effects of population structure and the changes.
Relation between Sociology and Demography
The emergence of Sociology as a field of study and its successful establishment as an academic field could be possible due to demography. Europe had witnessed the formation of nation-states in the latter half of the 18th Century. The nation-states gave importance to maintaining law and order, public health system, economic policies for agricultural and industrial sectors, and revenue and tax systems. The nation-states needed regular and systematic collection of data or quantitative data on various population indicators. It is how the concept of the Census started.
Uses of Demographic Information
The data collections based on different Demographics types are vital for the analysts in the private and public sectors. Demography is an applied science. The collected and processed data are used for analysis, but recommendations such as migration policy, policies for eradicating poverty, family policy, etc., are made based on the demography analysis. The analysts use the data for different purposes discussed below.
The demographic information helps businesses to know their target audience well. Demographic information is an important marketing tool for businesses. It helps them assess the market size and do market segmentation based on age, income, sex, cultural habits, and buying behaviour. It would be difficult for companies to create cost-effective and focused marketing plans without relevant demographic information.
A clear understanding of Demographics helps use the demographic data about healthcare, finance, voting decision, etc. Analysis can identify the ways society is working and create accurate reports about economic indicators. The trends of consumers vary according to economic, social, and political conditions. Demographic data analysis helps in addressing the related issues of the society.
Demographics study is vital for the government. The government uses demographic information to identify current trends and issues in society. By using demographic data, the government can create policies for its citizens and do fund allocation accordingly. We define demographics as the study of the human population, and it is studies based on many indicators. The government can analyze the health and population data to identify the number of schools and hospitals needed in a state or city. Demographic data helps the government create long-term and short-term policies for the betterment of the nation.
Indicators of Demographics
There are some important indicators of India Demographics. They are:
- Death Rate: The total death numbers in a given area during a time per 1000 population
- Birth Rate: The total number of live births in a given area during a time per 1000 people
- Growth Rate: It is determined by the gap between the birth rate and the death rate
- Fertility Rate: It is defined as the numeral live births per 1000 women in the bracket of child-bearing age
- Infant Mortality Rate: The numeral babies who died before reaching 1 year of age per 1000 live births
- Maternal Mortality: The numeral women who die at childbirth per 1 00,000 live births
- Life Expectancy: The estimated number of years a person is expected to live
- Sex Ratio: The total number of females per 1000 males in a specific region
The Demographics data are very important for creating and implementing the state policies for public welfare and economic development. The data collection of demographers is done through government censuses. Demographers can also collect data indirectly by surveying small groups with a region’s population. The data collected through samples are analysed using different statistical models, and information on various aspects of the population within a specified territory and a specific period can be obtained. In India, data is collected every 10 years through Census.