The Indian bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus) is found in wetlands in South and Southeast Asia, where it lives in holes and shrubs near permanent water sources. In nature, it is a solitary and primarily nocturnal species that feeds on insects, small animals, small snakes, and birds. They are insatiable feeders who eat whatever will fit in their jaws. During the monsoon season, breeding occurs. That’s why it hasn’t gotten much attention until recently. During the monsoon, the male’s color changes to yellow in order to attract the female.
Tadpoles are the name for their young. The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 prohibits hunting of these bullfrogs in Karnataka and Goa, India. In Thailand, the Indian frog is cultivated.
Although the Indian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus) does not appear to be particularly attractive, its appearance can vary considerably. During the majority of the season, both genders are dull kaki-olive-green, but as the mating season arrives, things rapidly alter. Except for the vocal sacks, which change blue, they turn yellow. It’s unclear how this works, but it’s thought that the more vibrant the color, the more beautiful the male is. Another intriguing aspect about the Indian Bullfrog is that, although being a pretty large frog, it can jump on the surface as if it were on land when threatened or when it really wants to.
The species lives in holes and shrubs near-permanent waters in the wetlands of South and Southeast Asia. It is primarily nocturnal and feeds on insects, as well as small animals and birds on occasion. Because breeding occurs during the monsoon season, it hasn’t been researched much until recently.
Habitat and Distribution
Despite the suggestiveness of its common name, the Indian Bullfrog inhabits a comparably large expanse of the world. While the creature’s distribution includes India, it can also be found in many other parts of Asia. But, regardless of where it lives on the planet, this masterpiece of evolution has a strong predilection for its chosen habitat. As an amphibian, these include moist regions, which are usually made up of freshwater wetlands, as well as man-made paddy fields.
Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and, of course, India account for the vast majority of the country’s population. The Maldives and Madagascar have smaller known populations of this giant amphibian. In terms of behavioral tendencies, the Indian Bullfrog evolved as largely nocturnal. In the meantime, its breeding season occurs during the monsoon season. The female lays many eggs after mating, but tadpole mortality rates are high.
Diet and Nutrition
Insects, vertebrates, invertebrates, mice, shrews, young frogs, worms, roundworms, juvenile snakes, tiny birds, and small mammals are all prey for Indian bullfrogs. They are insatiable feeders who eat whatever will fit in their jaws. It eats a variety of things, including rodents and insects. It can even eat other frogs of a lower size.
Amphibians are more endangered and deteriorating at a faster rate than birds or mammals3. Because of its extensive distribution, H. tigerinus (Daudin, 1803) is classified as ‘Least Concern’ by the IUCN because of its widespread distribution, tolerance of a wide range of environments, and presumed huge population, it is unlikely to be diminish at a rate that would qualify it for listing in a more threatened category.
It is included in CITES Appendix II. It is illegal to export goods from India for commercial purposes. The Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 includes it in Schedule IV (as amended in 1991). There is a need to monitor this species’ population in India for the next five years in order to establish current population trends (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species).
As a result of the increase in haphazard development, important breeding habitats have been eliminated, leaving limited room for this amphibian species to reproduce and maintain healthy numbers. As our farmlands and orchards are continuously abused, the widespread use of pesticides has pushed these essential indicators of healthy ecosystems to the verge of local extinction. When it comes to catching frogs for the table, poachers continue to have a field day.
Invasive Indian bullfrogs have been brought to the Andaman Islands, where they devour native animals such as fish and lizards. Experiments now show that the frogs develop this intrusive behavior early in life. The huge bullfrog tadpoles consume other native frog tadpoles even throughout their growth phases, according to a study.
After being introduced to the Andaman Islands in the early 2000s, the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus has quickly spread throughout the islands. Bullfrogs are prolific breeders, with brief breeding seasons and egg clutches containing up to 5,750 eggs per clutch. Its tadpoles consume other tadpoles and are carnivorous including their own species.
Changes in both freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems as a result of anthropogenic activities constitute a threat to amphibians in its marginal areas. The conservation of the amphibian diversity of Ousteri Lake should be a priority. To improve freshwater habitats and frog variety in the lake, it is necessary to protect and conserve high-quality freshwater ecosystem habitats for frog diversity.