UPSC » UPSC CSE Study Materials » Commerce » Computation of Income

Computation of Income

Computation of income in profits are determined using a profit and loss account through which several costs are partially permitted or excluded under the Income Tax Act.

The computation of income technique is an assessment approach used to estimate an estate, produced by dividing the capitalisation or amount by the net computation of income of the rental amounts. However, investors use the computation of income to calculate the value of assets depending on how profitable they are. This strategy focuses on the distribution of national income.

In other words, the money that people in a country pay or get when it is allotted to government expenditure is called national income. Hence, using this strategy, national income is the sum of the incomes of all citizens of a country. By contributing their time and resources, such as land and cash, citizens benefit from the nation’s output.

What is meant by the Computation of Income?

Computation of income is a systematic presentation of all gains, exemptions, rebates, reliefs, deductions, and the computation of taxes in connection with the calculation of taxes. Although there is no standard format for this, the following elements are generally considered in the computation of income

  • Personal information of the assessee (name, father’s name, address, contact details, etc.) 
  • Bank account information 
  • Income information 
  • Information on the calculation of total taxes and taxes paid

Five Heads of Income for Computation of Income Tax

As per Section 14 of the Income Tax Act, all earnings are categorised under these heads of income for calculating tax and the computation of total revenue.

  • Income from salaries

An income might be burdened under the head salaries of a business and representative association between the payer and the payee. If this connection didn’t exist, the pay wouldn’t be decided. On the off chance that there is no component of the business representative association, the payment will be not assessable under this classification of pay.

  • Income from house property

The expense on the rental payments from the property is also the charge on that income. However, if the property isn’t rented out, the cost will be calculated based on the assessed lease that would have been acquired if the property had been leased. 

The principal pay exposed to the load on a public premise appears to be from house property. This charge includes income from residential rental homes and commercial and other property gains. This pay class also allows for deductions with the standard deduction, the deduction for municipal taxes paid, and the deduction for home loan interest.

  • Profits and gains from business or profession

Any income from the exchange/business/produce/calling will be burdened under this pay class after deducting endorsed consumption.

  • Income from capital gains

Any benefits or gains emerging from the exchange of a capital resource affected in the financial year will be chargeable to income tax under capital gains. They will be considered the pay of the year the exchange occurred except if such capital increases. 

  • Income from Other Sources

Any pay not chargeable to burden under the above determined four heads will be available under this head of income. It turns out such revenue isn’t excluded from the calculation of total pay.

What do you mean by Tax Deductions?

Income tax deductions enable individuals to lower their tax bills in a financial year. In other words, IT deductions are investments made during a tax year and deducted from your total yearly income when you file your ITR. The purpose of tax deductions is to encourage individuals to save money and help them build a solid financial foundation for themselves and their families.

Public Provident Fund (PPF), National Pension Scheme (NPS), investments made under Section 80 of the IT Act, 1961, in ELSS funds, principal repayment of a house loan, and so on are prominent instances of tax deductions.

What are Income Tax Exemptions/Allowances?

Income tax exemptions/allowances are components of your gross income that, as the name implies, are exempted from being computed as part of your total taxable income. Individuals may keep a considerable portion of their earnings thanks to these exemptions. The Income Tax Act, 1961 specifies income tax exemptions/allowances so that individuals might save more.

Some well-known income tax exemptions include children’s education allowance, home rent allowance (HRA), leave travel allowance (LTA), exemptions allowed under Section 24, etc.


The computation of income is the total value of goods and services produced by a country for a financial year. It is the monetary equivalent of the net product of all economic activity in a nation. The computation of an individual’s income, expenditures, and product value calculates the national income. National or gross national income is the total cost (value) of money earned by all citizens and businesses in a country during a given time.

Alternatively, national income can be defined as the total value of all goods and services generated within a given time. As a result, it is the sum of a country’s economic activity for a year. The amount covers the country’s GDP and earnings from multinational corporations.


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the UPSC Examination Preparation.

What is the method of computation of income?

Answer: It is a way of estimating the computation of income by analysing the variable pay of an economy. Here...Read full

What is the formula for the computation of total income?

Answer: To discover your overall income, Then, under Chapter VIA, account for all the deductions you’ve made u...Read full

How do you measure income from a business?

Answer: Subtract your business’s expenditures and operational costs from your overall revenue. This is your pr...Read full