Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
THE TWO NATION THEORY BY NANDINI MAHAAJ
ABOUT ME BA (Hons.) in History from Lady Shri Ram MA in Applied Human Rights from Sheffield Hallam University Love to teach, read and dance
CONTENTS .(PART 1) CONTESTING NATIONALISMS LEAGUE UNDER JINNAH MUSIC BEFORE MOSQUE MUSLIM ALIENATION IN THE CONGRESS (PART 2) MUSLIM POLITICS IN THE 1930's MUSLIM POLITICS AFTER 1937 TWO NATION THEORY
CONTESTING NATIONALISMS Congress's nationalism was contested incessantly from within the Indian Society These contestations resulted in different understandings of nationalism for different Indians The most forceful challenge came from the Muslims of India, many of whom from the very beginning did not see the Congress as a representative of their interests. Between 1892-1909, only 7% of the Congress delegates were Muslims.
CONTESTING NATIONALISMS . Muslim League had emerged out of a fear of Hindu majority domination when a representative government seemed imminent The League was vying for political identity, NOT a separate homeland . It won separate electorates for the Muslims, and although this made Muslims an 'all India political category', it also made them a perpetual minority.
CONTESTING NATIONALISMS . The Khilafat movement, though caused unprecedented cooperation between the Hindus and Muslims of India, also strengthened the Muslim identity in many places. This in turn created a sense of insecurity in the Hindus. Serious communal riots erupted in Malabar in 1921, and continued during the 1920's. The Arya Samaj, Hindu Mahasabha and RSS worked to consolidate a Hindu identity in opposition to the Muslim identity
CONTESTING NATIONALISMS .Congress tended to relegate religion away from the political to the private sphere, and projected an Indian nation that was above sectarian interests. To the Congress, communalism and nationalism were binary opposites This eliminated the possibility of a real incorporation of Muslim demands, and thus created an irrevocable wedge between the Congress and the Muslim League. Congress propounded secularism at the same time that Hindu and Muslim organizations were propounding a religious identity for the public sphere.
LEAGUE UNDER JINNAH . Central Legislative Assembly: Jinnah representing the Bombay Muslims most prominent spokesperson for the Muslims disliked agitational politics, preferred constitutional struggle Thus moved away from Gandhian politics during the Non- Cooperation movement, but willing the cooperate with the Swarajists after the withdrawal of the Movement.
LEAGUE UNDER JINNAH His Independence party and the Swarajists formed an allince His Independence party and the Swarajists formed an alliance called the Nationalist Party in the Assembly. . Simultaneously, he focused on reviving the Muslim League at its 1923 Lahore session wanted to renegotiate the Lucknow Pact with the Congress, which the Mahasabhaities didn't allow despite the Swarajist willingness. .CR Das negotiated the Bengal Pact with the League, but this was rejected at the 1923 Congress session. at Coconada on the grounds that a national issue cannot be negotiated at a provincial level.
MUSIC BEFORE MOSQUE .Hindu mobilisation around the claim of a right to play music before mosques A contest over sacred spaces Became a bone of contention and a mode of defining communal identities in India Gandhisaid that the Hindu tradition of playing music in pubi .Gandhi said that the Hindu tradition of playing music in public places was a non essential aspect But in a war of symbols, the non-essential became the non negotiable Communal riots on this issue occurred between 1923-1927