Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Pre-Historic South Asia and the Harrapan Civilization
About me BA (Hons.) History from LSR . MA in Applied Human Rights e Kapila-Hingorani Scholar Kapila-Hingorani Scholar o Love dancing, reading and teaching
Pre-History and History Pre-history no written records o History- written sources o Proto history- term to define areas where the line between pre-history and proto history gets blurry For example, there are written sources from the Harrapan civilization, but they have not been deciphered.
People in pre-historic South Asia Some hunting-gathering settlements - near banks of Narmada . Hints of agricultural settlements - evidence of rice grown near Vindhyas 8000 years ago; Sulaiman and Kirthar Hills; Garo hills Sources - archeological sites - factory and habitation e Usually near water bodies Evidence of fire (ash found) from Kurnool caves
Stone Ages And After lithic' root- Divisions on the basis of geological age, the type and technology of stone tools, and subsistence base 3 phases - Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithis 6000 BP - Chalcolithic (first use of copper) 2600 BCE - Harrapan Civilization 1000 BCE - Iron, Megaliths 600BCE- 400CE - Early Historic . lithic' root - means stone
. Paleolithic India) . Mesolithic old stone age 2mya-12000 years ago (Hungsi; ostriches in middle stone age 12000-1000o years ago (art; Bhimbetka; microliths) Neolithic New stone age from 1000o years ago till different times in different parts of the world (agriculture; domestication; Burzahom in Kashmir, Mehrgarh, Bolan Pass, Pakistan -route to Iran - rectanqular houses and burial sites; Daojali Hading route to China and Myanmar - evidence of trade)
The Harrapan Civilization Named after the first discovered site o From 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE (new research may push back the date) e Divided into 3 phases - Early, Mature and Late . Spread from Afghanistan to Gujarat Spread from Afghanistan to Gujarat
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION HARAPPA AND MOHENJO-DARO Harappa Mehrgarh Mohenjo-Daro Lothal Bay Arabian Sea Bengal -Saraswati Rver (Dry Riven urrent Courtry Map not to scale Copyright 2012 www.maps on ndia.com Updated on 9th April 2012)
Discovery 1924-John Marshall, Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) announced the discovery of a new civilization . Contemporaneous with Mesopotamia . Related trivia - Alexander Cunningham was the first DG of ASI. He came across many Harrapan artefacts during his investigations, but could not place it in the then known time frame of the South Asian subcontinents history.
Subsistence Base . Ate plants, animals and fish e Many irrigation arrangements found - canals at Shurtughai, Afghanistan o Bull and plough was known - ploughed field at Kalibangan Aigh and bl ugh was known- ploughed ed a (Rajasthan) . Bull representation on seals . Terracotta models of plough - Cholistan and Banawali (Haryana) o Water reservoirs - Dholavira (Gujarat) . Stone tools for grinding -querns, rollers, pounder . Cotton cultivated at Merhgarh