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Early States and Societies: Part 2 (in Hindi)
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This lesson discusses the chera, chola and pandya states of southern India, the Satvahanas and Shakas of Western and central India, the Gupta empire, harshavardhana, and the Pallavas and the Chalukyas. It also discusses the script and languages of the sources of early historic India.

Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Nandini Maharaj
MA in Applied Human Rights from Sheffield Hallam University, BA (Hons.) History from LSR, reader, dancer, love to teach, AIR 42 in 2018 UPSC

Unacademy user
please avoid this background color...white is better..and can u please mention the important terms in other colour
Ashna Shaji
5 months ago
Sure. Thank you
mam,one doubt is there? issuer of gold coin and silver coin is different in ancient history and medieval history or same..i.e; if questions will be asked that who is the first issuer of gold coin then answer will be Indo-greeks or Kusana?
Vijendra
2 years ago
Mr preetam Debata The answer will be Indo-greeks as the first time gold was issued by indo-greeks.
thank you maam ... xuan zang came after 150 years of faxain then 50 year later iqing came please correct me
thank you maam please correct me the sudarsan lake were build by ashok or rudraman shaka .please reply.
it is enogh for anicent history i m prepring for upsc 2020.............
TO COVER COMPLETE INDIAN HISTORY TELL ME WHICH CLASS NCERT BOOKS ARE ENOUGH???
  1. Early States and Societies Part 2


  2. Cheras, Cholas and Pandayas Rulers of Tamilakam (ancient Tamil country, includes present day Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) Muvendar-Tamil word meaning "three chiefs -of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandayas Cheras -3rd cent BCE -10th cent CE . Cholas -3rd cent BCE -13h cent CE . Source - Sangam literature (3rd cent BCE-3rd cent CE) . Epics - Manimekalai (by Sattanar) and Silappadikaram (by Pandyas-600 BCE-17th century CE Three literary meetings (sangams) at Madurai Ilango


  3. Cheras, Cholas and Pandayas (cont.) . Each had 2 centers- one inland and one coastal . Cholas: between Pennar and Velar rivers Capitals: Uraiyur (inland) and Puhar (Kaveripattanam) (coastal) .Cheras present ay Kerela, between river Bharatappuza . Cheras : present day Kerela, between river Bharatappuza and Periyar Capitals Karur (inland) and Muciri (coastal) Pandayas : capitals were Madurai (inland) and Korai (coastal) . Chiefs collected tributes and gifts, not taxes


  4. Satavahanas and Shakas 2nd cent BCE- 2nd cent CE Western and central India "lords ofdakshinapatha" obscure social origins Best known ruler Gotami-puta Siri Satakani claimed to be a brahmin (source- inscription from his mother Gotami Balashri) Rulers identified through metronymics (derived from the mother), but succession patriarchal e e 3 . o Issued coins stamped with images of theirrulers . Fought many battles with the Shakas of central Asia (who extended theirrule till western and north-western India) Shaka ruler Rudradaman constructed Sudarshan lake, and artificial reservoirat Girnar and recorded the achievement in Sanskrit on a rock inscription o Technology for irrigation was spreading


  5. rfan sOGDIANA Kucha CHINA FERGHANA Kashgar BACTRIA PAMIR Bactra Surkhketal HIMALAYAS HINDU-KUSHGANDHARA Taxila (Imaus ARACHOSIA KUSHAN EMPIRE (1-34 C.CE) Mathura (2-1st e BCE GEDROSIA liputra WESTE Barbaricum SATRAPS Ujjain E) 194&.CE Barygaz Bandharae KALINGA PuneePratishthana CHUTOS EMPIRE SATAVAHAN Amaravati PANDYAN CHOLAS


  6. The Gupta Empire First important ruler - Chandraguptai (c. 320-335 CE) "maharaj-adhiraja" Ruled over Magadh, Prayag (Allahabad) and Saketa Samudragupta ruled between c. 335-380 CE Allahabad pillar inscription aka Prayaga Prashasti is the most important source His court poet, Harishsena composed a prashasti in Sanskrit- informs us that Samudragupta expanded the kingdom through battles, and performed the e ashvamedha sacrifice af the Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) ruled between c. 380-412 CE - overcame last of the Shakas Iron pillar near Qutb Minar describes Chandragupta II says he conquered Bengal ad Bactria e Fa-Xain visited India in his rule; Xuan Zang and I-Qing came 50 years after . According to popular theory, Kalidas was his court poet (but definitely lived during the Gupta age). Wrote Meghduta, Abhijnana, Shakuntalam, Ritusamhara, Raghuvamsa, etc.


  7. The Gupta Empire (cont.) Chandragupta II's daughter Prabhavati Gupta married Rudrasena II of the Vakataka kingdom. When Rudrasena II died, she ruled over the Vakatakas in the name of her young son. Exceptional situation- she also commanded resources (against the legality of thattime) and made land grants The next king was Kumaragupt the Hunas e e a, then Skandagupta, who fought against e Hiprtsof the Gupta Empi, rest ge catred ntomany states. Gupta's issued gold coins. (finds declined after 6th cent - suggests economic troubles, possiblyrelated to the decline of the Roman Empire) "Golden Age" theory- by nationalist historians looking for sources of pride in India's ancient culture. Art, literature, science and wealth flourished under the Gupta's. Contemporary historians questionthis theory. (Aryabhatta is from this era- wrote Aryabhatiyam in Sanskrit) e


  8. Taxia Indraprastha Mathura Pattala Chandragupta's Pataliputra Conquests Bodh Gaya Bay of Bay ) Arabian Sed Bengal


  9. Harshavardhana (c. 590-648 . Post-Gupta . Pushyabhuti dynasty . Empire extended to modern Punjab, Ha Empire extended to modern Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa (importantly Thanesar and Kanauj) . Tried to capture Deccan but defeated by Pulakeshin II, the Chalukya ruler on the banks of Narmada e Sources Xuan Zang (who also spent time at Nalanda), and Banabhatta, the court poets Harshacharitra


  10. Pallavas and Chalukyas Pallavas (275 CE to 897 CE)- capital Kanchipuram, ruled the Kaveri delta - defeated by Cholas . Chalukyas ruled Raichur doab between Tungabhadra and Krishna, capital Aihole The two kingdoms often raided each others lands Best known Chalukya ruler Pulakeshin II (Badami dynasty) had a prashasti by court poet Ravikirti