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Key Features of the Indus Valley Civilisation (in Hindi)
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This lesson is an in depth discussion of the Harappan Civilization. Focus is on urban organisation, subsistence base, seals, script and religion, political structure and decline. Special emphasis is on the type of detail that needs to be remembered for the CSE exam.

Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Nandini Maharaj
MA in Applied Human Rights from Sheffield Hallam University, BA (Hons.) History from LSR, reader, dancer, love to teach, AIR 42 in 2018 UPSC

U
Unacademy user
hindi me please sir
voice quality is not good ma'am . please work on this....
N
madam g apne to pura pronunciation hi change kr diya
Thank you very much mam.. 😘
hey can you provide pdf files of whole history part.. this is my email m.eshwar90@gmail.com that would be so helpful
Mam thanks for this beautiful description on Ancient Indian history.. Please do same type of lectures on Mediaeval History & Modern Indian history of NCERT books.
  1. Pre-Historic South Asia and the Harrapan Civilization


  2. About me BA (Hons.) History from LSR . MA in Applied Human Rights e Kapila-Hingorani Scholar Kapila-Hingorani Scholar o Love dancing, reading and teaching


  3. Subsistence Base . Ate plants, animals and fish e Many irrigation arrangements found - canals at Shurtughai, Afghanistan o Bull and plough was known - ploughed field at Kalibangan Aigh and bl ugh was known- ploughed ed a (Rajasthan) . Bull representation on seals . Terracotta models of plough - Cholistan and Banawali (Haryana) o Water reservoirs - Dholavira (Gujarat) . Stone tools for grinding -querns, rollers, pounder . Cotton cultivated at Merhgarh


  4. Mohenjodaro City Plan o Urban centre . 2 sections citadel and lowertown e Citadel-usually on the west, small and high, mud brick platforms, walled and separated from lower town- perhaps a warehouse/ritual significance. Great Bath at Mohenjodarowith watertights bricks using PoP Lower town - usually on the eat, low and large, walled . Planned settlements, bricks of a standardized ratio(used throughout Harrapan settlements), planned drainage in a grid pattern (loose bricks to facilitate cleaning) Streets on top of drains, houses built alongside Labour was mobilized on a huge scale . .


  5. Variations elsewhere . Mohenjodaro Houses -courtyard in the centre, wells, bathrooms connected to drains, no windows (concern for privacy), staircases to second storey or roof, wells accessible from outside Dholavira (Rann of Kutch) - in 3 parts, each separately fortified, entrance through gateways, large writing Lothal - (near Gulf of Khambat) -has a dockyard, a store house; also an important stone, metal and shell craft house; also an important stone, me centre; citadel not walled, built at a height


  6. Social Differences Study of burials Pits lined with bricks, some contain jewellery (all sexes), one has a copper mirror Harappans did not believe in burying precious things with the dead Arte facts -luxurious and uti itarion Luxury Found mainly in large settlements like Harrapa and Mohenjodaro faience (ground sand or silica mixed with colour, and gum and then fired) Gold


  7. Craft Centres and Trade Chanhudaro- craft centre (now in Pakistan) Nageshwarand Balakot- coastal towns- shell work Lapiz Lazuli obtained from Shortugai, Afghanistan Carnelian from Lothal, Gujarat Steatite from Rajasthanand Gujarat e . Steatite from Rajasthan and Gujarat e Copper from Khetri region, Rajasthan (non-Harrapan culture also Ganeshwara-Jodhpura culture, pottery) Copper also from Oman in exchange for thick jars Gold from South India - trade with neolithic settlements there Limite Internal as well as external trade asthan (non-flarrapan culture als0 e e d trade with Mesopotamia e


  8. Seals, Script and Religion Undeciphered script written right to left Seals for trade and identifying the sender Standardized weights of chert (a stone), no markings Weights - lowed denominations binary, higher followed decimal system o Dancing girl bronze sculpture - lost wax technique o Sculpture symbolizing mother goddess, proto-shiva (crossed legged yogic figure surrounded by animals, especially a bull and a tiger), a priest king" Ritual significance to Great Bath (Mohenjodaro)and fire altars at Lothal and Kalibangan o No confirmed understanding of religious practices



  9. State Structure and Decline No oo s organized or . No confirmed theories of how the state was organized or . The standarization of script, weights, bricks, settlements . Absence of palaces or archeological sources depecting e Three theories - no rulers, single ruler, several rulers why the civilization declined etc show some centralized authority centre of power confusing for historians "Aryan invasion'", deforestration, shifting/drying up of . Theories of decline - changes in climate and flooding rivers, overuse of landscape, collapse of Harrapan state