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Buddhism and Jainism (in Hindi)
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This lesson briefly covers the history and philosophy of Jainism and Buddhism. It also talks about the architecture of ancient temples and stupas.

Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Nandini Maharaj
MA in Applied Human Rights from Sheffield Hallam University, BA (Hons.) History from LSR, reader, dancer, love to teach, AIR 42 in 2018 UPSC

Unacademy user
please try to improve your pronunciation you designed this course in hindi and didnt explain meaning of difficult words and passes away by saying " YE TO AAP JANTE HAI" please improve your way of teaching hum nai jante tabhi yaha padhai kar rahe. I am not a student of humanities bt if i have to teach my presentation is far better than you. hope you pay your kind attention towards this.
So my dear friend , do that rather than catching others weakness or strength.
बहुत खूब मैडम.... काफी अच्छा बताया आपने... मजा आ गया... धन्यवाद
Hi Nandini, I feel what you asked to leave is probably a very important part. It is important to be aware of the terms.
mam english to hindi word to word translate na karo. explain b karo thoda details main
M m plz agar time apke pass ho to Hindi font ka video banaiyega .... thanks bahut hi Accha lga
  1. Buddhism and Jainism And other cultural developments

  2. Ancient philosophers o ist millennium BCE - Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, Kong Zi, . Zoroaster, Iranian prophet, teaching in Avesta, similar to Zarathustra, Mahavir, Buddha Vedas, gave maxim "Good thoughts, good words and good deeds" - followers are Zoroastrians, ancestors of today's Parsis . Many philosophers in South Asia questioned the authority of the Vedas and Brahamanism, emphasized individual agency o Kutagarashala - huts where intellectual debates took place

  3. Women and poor thinkers Gargi- participated in debates at court o Satyakama Jabala, son on slave woman Jabali was accepted as a student by Gautama (a brahmin)-his ideas developed by Shankaracharya . Both their ideas used in Upanishads

  4. Mahavir (early 6th cent BCE) o Born Vardhaman, Kshatriya prince of Lichchavis, of the Vajji sangha o Left home, lived in a forest for 12 years, attained enlightenment o 23 thirthankaras preceded him (Mahavir the 24th and last, first R shabanath) Followers known as jains . Entire world is animated; ahimsa; reincarnation and karma; asceticism o Gave principle of Anekantavada - plurality of viewpoints; nyayavad e Jain monks and nuns took five vows : to abstain from killing (ahimsa and renunciation of the world to be free of cycle of birth, rebirth and karma (moksha) partial viewpoints; satyavada -conditioned viewpoints (roughly, non- asbolutism) ing (asatya), and stealing (asteya- non stealing), to observe celibacy brahmacharya), and to abstain from possessing property (aprigraha non-attachment)

  5. Mahavir (cont.) Literature in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Tamil Chief diciple Gautam Swami compiled teachings as Jain Agamas Uttaradhyayana Sutta (in Prakrit) - recording of final set of Mahaviras teachings by his disciples in the form of stories . o . o Records of teaching available by Valabhi, Gujarat o Supported mainly by traders (farmers had to kill, so found it difficult to folloW Followers split in 2 groups-Digambaras in the south (didntwear clothes) and Shvetambaras in the north (wore white clothes) e Disciple Goshala Maskariputra started Ajivika sect, said everything was predetermined, so do whateveryou want to; monks practiced severe penance by choice

  6. Buddha (c. 6th-4th cent BCE) . Siddharata (the Buddha), a kshtriya from Sakya gana (Nepal), born in Lumbini o Meditated under the peepal tree at Bodh Gaya, attained enlightenment (mahaparinibbana, represented via an empty seat) e Taught at Sarnath, near Varanasi for the first time (stupa here) - represented via a wheel (the dharmachakra also represents the Eightfold path - right view, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness and samadhi) . Passed away/attained nirvana at Kusinara

  7. Buddhist Literature . Buddha taught orally, teachings complied at Vaishali (c. 4th-5th BCE)- Tipitaka Vinaya Pitika - rules and regulations for the sangha (monastic order) o Sutta Pitaka - Buddhas teachings e Abhidhamma Pitaka - study and systemization of Sutta Pitaka From Sri Lanka - Dipvamsa and Mahavamsa

  8. Buddhas teachings Tried to convince people through reason and Tried to convince people through reason and persuasion rather than e displays of supernatural power; taught in Prakrit Anicca - world is transient and constantly changing Anatta - world is soulless Dukkha- sorrow is intrinsicto human existence . . . Follow path between severe penance and self-indulgenceto rise above worldly troubles In early forms, existence of God was irrelevant (Theravada Buddism) Buddha advised kings and gahapatis to be humane and kind Emphasised human agency and righteous actionto escape reincarnation and attain nibbana, although graduallyidea of savior developed (Mahayana Buddhism- called the older form Hinayana) - boddhisattvas became important (people who attained enlightenment and taught others instead of retreating from worldly life) o

  9. Buddhas followers Sangha organization of monks who taught also dhamma o Lived simply on alms, minimal possessions . Bhikkus and bhikkunis come from all social backgrounds; Lived simply on alms, minimal possessi considered equal once in the sangh, where consensus was arrived through discussion and vote; emphasis on metta (fellow feeling) . Theris and theras - respected women and men who taught and o Initially only men, later women also allowed through the o Mahapajapati Gotami first bhikkuni and karuna (compassion) had attained liberation mediation of Ananda (a disciple of Buddha) Viharas : monastries (Buddhist and Jain)

  10. Stupas Sacred sites with small shrines, places associated with Buddhas life ua io chaityas ; , mahachiatya: hall of worship Ashoka erected a pillar at Lumbini to mark the place of Buddhas birth Relics of buddha buried in many places -Ashoka undertook this task - mounds known as stupas - venerated as am emblem of Buddha and Buddhism Guilds, rulers, bhikkus and bhikkunis contributed to build Stupas Sanchi at Bhopal, discovered by Alexander Cunnimgham, preserved in situ - has depiction of the shalabhanjika, a non-Buddhist icon. Highlights the cultural exchange of symbols and ideas. Amaravati (not preserved); Shahji-ki-Dheri at Peshawar, Pakistarn Worshippers enter from eastern gate, walk around clockwise, imitating the suns course- pradakshina path o o e . . Structure Anda - mound, which has the relic casket Harmika -balcony-like structure above the anda, represents abode of gods Yashti mast rising from the harmika Chattri - umbrella surmounting the yashti