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Early States and Societies: Part 1 (in Hindi)
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This lesson discusses the period between Harrapan Civilization and emergence of early States, the Mahajanapadas. Special focus is on Magadh's Maurya Dynasty and Ashok. Then it talks about the Kushans dynasty.

Nandini Maharaj
MA in Applied Human Rights from Sheffield Hallam University, BA (Hons.) History from LSR, reader, dancer, love to teach

U
Unacademy user
Sir, Is there common subjects ? in Ese-Prelims(G.s Subjects) & UPSC Civil Service Exam subjects. Is yes, then which one, so that i can solve CSE Questions also.
As
thanks a lot ma'am... ????.it is vry informative course
Very helpful for various competitive exam..thnx mam ..more preparation with less time ...
who composed rigveda? aryans or priests.?
Just luv all the ncert lect very usefull
shukriya for thiss... Mam agar sambhav ho ske to Mesopotamia, Egypt or Iran etc. ki sabhyata ke upar bhi basic se videos banyiye gaa...
  1. Early States c. 600 BCE to 6o0 CE


  2. Between IVC and Early States o Agro-pastoral communities . Iron Age o Rigveda composed by people (Aryas) along Indus and its tributaries diety, plant, and drink) valley, largest site Mathura . Important gods - Agni (fire), Indra (warrior) and Soma (a e People who didn't perform sacrifices Dasas/Dasyus . Painted Grey Ware in Gangetic plains and Ghaghar-Hakra


  3. Between IVC and Early States (cont) o Megaliths-(literally - big stone boulders) elaborate o Found in central and south India, north east and o Burials often contained iron tools, Black and Red . Site : Inamgaon, on river Ghod, tributary of river stone structures to cover burials Found in central and south India, north east and Kashmi Ware pottery Bhima


  4. c. 600 BCE Emergence of states o use of iron - eg iron ploughshare e Technology paddy transplantation . Coinage . Cities o Growth of diverse thoughts - Buddhism, Jainism; Charaka Samhita on Technology - paddy transplantation . medicine and ayurved written 16 Mahajanpadas (jana - community, janapad - land where people settle) Ruled by kings (like Magadha) or oligarchies called gana/sangha (like Vaji) Fortified capital cities Sometimes taxes collected (bhaga-tax on crops, usually/6of produce; tax on craft producers, traders, sales, herders, hunter-gatherers) Some maintained armies . .


  5. India, 600 B.C The 16 Mahajanapadas Kamboja Gandhafa Kuru Ha Indraprashta Kosala alla Matsya Vrijji aliputra ashi Vatsa Rajagaha A Avanti Chetiya Magadha Assaka Cities Rivers Modern Boundaries 1DD 200


  6. Magadhan Empire . Resources for the empire Forests (wood and elephants procured) Iron mines (in Jharkhand today) Rivers Ganga and Son . Capitals (fortified) - Rajagaha/Rajgir, then Patliputra (4th o Rise to political supremacy began with Bimbisara . Succeeded by son Ajatashatru (met Mahavir and Buddha century BCE) Barhadratha dynasty first to rule Magadh (Haranyaka dynasty) Bimbisara follower of Mahavira and Buddha- met both too


  7. Magadhan Empire (cont.) Shaishunga dynasty Nanda dynasty - important ruler Mahapadma Nanda Nanda dynasty-important ruler Mahapadma Nanda (shudra mother) - expanded the empire . Mauryan dynasty (c. 321 BCE - 185 BCE) unga dynaS o Gupta dynasty (c. 320 to 550 CE)


  8. Mauryan Dynasty o Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, suceeded by Bimbisara and Ashoka o Megasthenes, a Greek ambassadorat Chandraguptas court wrote Indica o Kautilya/Chanakya wrote Arthashastra e Buddhist, Jaina, Sanskrit and Puranic literature, sculpture, pillars and inscriptions are other sources Large empire 5 capitals Pataliputra Taxila - on an important trade route Ujjayani - on an importanttrade route Tosali - port town Suvarnagiri - to tap the gold mines of Karnataka iy


  9. Ashoka Inscribed messages to people on stone surfaces and pillars Propagated dhamma - a wayof life that will ensure the wellbeing of people in o this life and the next Employed dhammamanatamasto spread the message of dhamma Ideas were simple -like respect towardselders, kindness towards slaves and servants, tolerance towards others' religionsand traditions Powerful, industrious and humble ruler Massive expansion of his empire till the conquest of Kalinga Embraced Buddhism after Kalinga war, stopped expansion Important for his religious views, spreading Buddhism Ashoka Chakra (Wheel of Dharma) on our National Flag Ashokan Pillarat Lumbini, marking Buddha's birthplace Ashokan Lion Capital, originally at Sarnath is the Emblem of India Inspired 2oth century nationalists e e o e


  10. Maurya Dynasty in 265 BCE Taxila Mathura aPattala Sarnath ataliputra Bodh Gaya Barabar Caves Caver Ujjain Sanchi Tosali a Suvarnagir Maurya Dynasty Tributaries +Capital City Anuradhapura Other Cities Edicts of Ashoka ^ Buddhist Sites