Analysing the data and bringing it all together is a crucial part of scaling and establishing businesses. The mathematical concept of profit and loss is necessary for identifying the company’s performance. In terms of businesses or finance, the profit and loss statement is significant as it summarises information related to cost, revenue, expenses, income etc., for a specific period.

This topic provides a comprehensive overview of the terms involved in the profit and loss questions and the formula used for solving them.

## Important terms used in profit and loss

The basis of profit and loss and related concepts are better understood with the help of a few terms.

- Selling price is the price at which a product is sold, and cost price is the price at which a product is purchased. For example, if a shopkeeper bought an apple for Rs 100 and sold it for Rs 120, this means the cost price of the apple is Rs 100, and the selling price is Rs 120.
- The profit is the amount gained on every sale. When the selling price is higher than the cost price, the difference between the selling and cost price is known as profit. For example, if the cost price of a pen is Rs 10 (C.P) and it is sold at Rs 15 (S.P), the profit is Rs 5 shown by (S.P – C.P).
- When the selling price is lower than the cost price, the value difference is called a loss. For example, if the S.P of a pen is Rs 20 and its C.P is Rs 30, then the loss is Rs 10 (C.P – S.P)
- Marked price is the price set by the seller on the article.
- Businesses must remain in the competition and boost sales. The rebate or offer given on a product or service is called a discount, calculated on the marked price of the product or article.

Discount = Marked Price – Selling Price

Discount % = (Discount/Marked Price) X 100

## Profit and loss formula

The two terms constantly used in understanding the profit or loss are selling price and cost price. Hence, the profit and loss are calculated by the application of the following formula:

### Formula for profit

Profit = Selling Price (S.P) – Cost Price (C.P)

When the selling price is higher than the cost price, it provides the profit amount. Let us check the same with an example. What is the profit when a bag is bought for Rs 120 and sold at Rs 200?

C.P = Rs 120

S.P = Rs 200

Profit = 200 – 120 = Rs 80

### Formula for loss

Loss = Cost Price (C.P) – Selling Price (S.P)

When the cost price is higher than the selling price, it provides the loss amount. For example, what is the loss if the product is bought at Rs 600 and sold at Rs 450?

C.P = Rs 600

S.P = Rs 450

Loss = 600 – 450 = Rs 150

## Profit and loss formula for percentage

Here are some of the important formulas used in calculating the profit and loss percentage. It is used to express the profit or loss incurred in % form.

- Profit percentage (%) = (Profit/Cost Price) X 100
- Loss percentage (%) = (Loss/Cost Price) X 100
- C.P. = {100/(100 + P%)} × S.P, when SP > CP
- C.P. = {100/(100 – L%)} × SP when SP < CP
- S.P. = {(100 + P%)/100} × CP when SP > CP
- S.P. = {(100 – L%)/100} × CP when SP < CP

## Importance of profit and loss

- One of the most important uses of profit and loss is calculating the financial statement. It is critical in determining how profitable a business is and evaluating its performance.
- It is required for companies to make a financial decision and is a part of the data analysis process necessary for making financial decisions and business budgets.
- All the financial data is analysed, unwanted information is eliminated, and hence it helps calculate the overall financial information like net income, profit, losses etc. It is even helpful for business forecasting.
- The profit and loss concepts are even used in making better personal financial decisions weighing the pros and cons.

### Conclusion

Profit and loss is an important mathematical and statistical concept that helps in data analysis, review of information, and tracking performance. Profit and loss questions are easy to solve by breaking down the concepts like cost price, selling price, discount, marked price etc. As one of the crucial financial statements, it is a way to reflect and understand the financial data and how a business or company performs. The article provides details about the profit and loss formula, its uses across various domains, and the concepts involved.