Non-Performing Assets

This guide is all about non-performing assets and all the relevant information that you should be aware of, so make sure you read it till the end. Read more to know the NPA meaning.

What is a Non-Performing Asset?

In general, NPAs are referred to those advance payments and loans whose payment is not yet made in ninety days or simply more than that specified duration of time.

Dynamically,  financial institutions classify advances and loans as one of the non-performing assets, preferably called NPAs, it basically means, if the principle is overdue for payment and also no interest expenses have now been paid for a certain duration. Advance and credit loans become NPAs when they become overdue for payment for ninety days or more than ninety days, while other lenders have a narrower timeframe in which they regard a credit or advance payment beyond that due date. But, why is it called non-performing assets?  

Whenever loan payments are not made from the borrower’s end, it is regarded as a non-performing asset. As a result, the asset is no more generating money for the lending institution since this borrower is not paying interest. 

What Are the Classifications of Non-Performing Assets?

Generally, there are four classifications of non-performing assets, these are as follows: 

  • Loss assets 

Loss assets are those NPAs that have been non-paying for a long time. Banks are compelled to recognize that the debt (in terms of the loan) will not ever be recovered, and they must show a deficit on their financial statements (that is, balance sheet) as a result of this category of the debt. The total debt must always be wiped off in its entirety. 

  • Standard assets 

Standard assets are non-performing assets with such a reasonable risk level that are already long due for the time frame between ninety days to twelve months in total. 

  • Doubtful debts 

This type of NPA has a significant impact on the bank’s internal level of risk. Within the doubtful debts class, non-performing assets were long due within a minimum time frame of eighteenth months. Financial institutions, generally banks, possess substantial worries about the borrower’s repayment of the loan as a whole. 

  • Sub-standard assets 

Such non-performing assets are due for payment for more than a year in terms of time frame. These have a significantly greater risk level, especially when paired with a customer with low credit.  

With these four basic classifications of NPAs, there are some more minor classifications of NPA. These are listed here. 

  • Agricultural loans with outstanding monthly instalments or balance instalments
  • Accounts with an overflow or cash advances that have been inactive for a longer time duration of exactly more than ninety days

Types of Non-Performing Asset 

  • Loans with a fixed term: Term loan 
  • Outstanding loans that are due for more than ninety days
  • Agricultural loans with outstanding repayments of monthly instalments 

Working and Procedure of Non-Performing Assets 

Considering the previously stated non-performing assets classifications, debts can never be placed into the categories of classification until they have been unpaid for an extended length of time that is allowed from the lender’s perspective. 

Lenders take into account all of the variables that might cause a borrower to fall behind on interest payments considering extending a time limit. Banks often deem a loan late after quite a month perhaps once. The debt can not become a non-performing asset until the time allowed expires which is usually considered as ninety days of non-payment of loan or partial loan (that is, interest).

Whenever repayments were not completed for ninety days, the debt is usually regarded as non-performing. Although 6 months is the industry norm, the length of time completed might vary according to the terms and circumstances of each lending. Debt can become an NPA at a time throughout the original loan maturity duration as per the time frame allowed.


Conclusively, nowadays, every bank is into giving out the money and lending the money for various purposes at a very low-interest rate but they do face various non-payments on time allowed and that is what a non-performing asset is in general language. In this case, they can pursue the repayment either with the legal ( court ) help or they can put that repayment of loan into bad debt and can acquire the collateral that is being submitted by the borrower.