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IBRD Full Form

IBRD full form. Functions of IBRD. India and IBRD. History of IBRD. Objectives of IBRD.

IBRD stands for International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and it is a multilateral financial agency that provides lending to emerging economies with middle incomes. The IBRD is the first of the World Bank Group’s five-member organisations, with headquarters in Washington, D.C., USA. 

  • It was founded in 1944 with the purpose of supporting the rebuilding of Europe’s ravaged countries following World War II
  • Since the IBRD and its subsidised lending hand, the IDA, share the same management and personnel, they are collectively referred to as the World Bank
  •  After Europe’s reconstruction, the Bank’s mission was enlarged to include furthering global economic growth and alleviating poverty
  • The IBRD offers sovereign governments commercial-grade or subsidised finance for programmes aimed at improving transit and construction, education, social policy, environmental protection, power expenditures, health, access to food and potable water, and good sanitation
  • Participants at the Bretton Woods Conference founded the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1944, and they began functioning in 1946

Purpose of IBRD

Even though one of the Bank’s initial missions was to aid in the smooth transition from wartime to peacetime countries, economic growth quickly had become the Bank’s primary goal. 

The World Bank’s current mission is to support economic and social development that favours the disadvantaged in emerging countries. Loans are granted to developing countries to aid in alleviating poverty and to fund activities that promote economic progress. 

Roads, power plants, schools, and irrigation networks, as well as agricultural extension, training of teachers, and health improvement for children and pregnant women, are among the expenditures. Some credit facilities are used to help countries restructure their economic structures in an effort to assist them to be more sustainable and productive.

Primary Functions of IBRD

  • Human and social development over a long period of time
  • Reform programmes in developing different countries’ policies and institutions
  • For these low- and middle-income countries, it establishes an industry ecosystem and improves financial access to markets

Other Functions of IBRD

  • Assists long-term individual and social growth that is not funded by private lenders
  • Maintains debtors’ economic resilience by giving assistance during times of crisis, when the poor are most vulnerable
  • Encourages policy and institutional changes (such as safety net or anti-corruption reforms)
  • Provides a positive investment atmosphere to encourage private capital investment
  • Accessibility to capital markets is facilitated, frequently at more reasonable terms than stakeholders can obtain on their own
  • Accessibility to capital markets is facilitated, frequently at more reasonable terms than stakeholders can obtain on their own 
  • The capital reserves and receivables form the resources of IBRD

Finance of IBRD

  • Just like other banks function, floating bonds in global financial markets
  • To be precise, in these economies, the IBRD is generally recognized as a World Bank. Member states of IBRD contribute roughly $14 billion in total in ratio to respective IMF allocation
  • Since 1959, the bank has retained a triple-A rating
  • Its excellent credit rating lets it acquire funds at cheap interest rates and provide funding to developing countries with middle income on more favourable conditions also with long-term bonds
  • The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) earns money each year from the receivables on its capital and the little margins it earns on loans
  • The funds so earned are spent in the IBRD’s operations, flows into resources to bolster the financial statement, and makes a yearly transmission of assets to IDA, the International Development Association’s development fund for the still to prosper states of the world

The Journey of IBRD so far

Post-World War II, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development expanded its mission to also include promoting economic expansion and social equity. The IBRD now concentrates its activities on intermediate-income nations. Middle-income countries are defined as those with annual per capita incomes ranging from $1,026 to $12,375. This and many other data are adjusted by the IBRD every year to factor in inflation, financial shifts inside intermediate-income states, and other variables.

Quickly developing economies, such as those in Indonesia, Thailand, and India, attract a bunch of international investment and huge infrastructure construction projects. Around the same time, intermediate-income countries are host to 70 percent of the world’s deprived, owing to the disproportionate distribution of the benefits of industrial growth.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s mission is to assist such countries’ governments in navigating the road to economic wealth by providing funding and fiscal policy guidance. This will frequently assist governments in financing public works projects that increase a nation’s economic viability while also assisting administrations in managing state finances and cultivating investor sentiment.

History of IBRD

In the course of the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, a meeting of the 44 Allied Countries of World War II aimed at establishing the post-war world’s economic order, the IBRD was established in preparation for World War II’s end. The Bretton Woods Agreement was also the birthplace of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

IBRD’s first credit was granted to the French state to facilitate financing the renovation of essential infrastructure. The IBRD moved its priority after the rebuilding of Europe to encourage economic growth in other regions of the globe.

IBRD and India

  • India remains the World Bank’s largest borrower, which constitutes IBRD and IDA
  • India is a founding partner of the IBRD. World Bank aid to India began in 1948 with the approval of money for the Agriculture Equipment Project
  • The Board of Directors of IBRD each has an Executive Director from India. India’s Executive Director leads a group that includes India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka
  • Expressways, electricity, urban infrastructure (including water supply and sanitation), emergency management, banking sectors, and rural financial projects have been the main areas of IBRD aid


IBRD is a key financial institution that plays a great role in the development of middle-income countries. Questions related to IBRD and other related financial institutions have been asked in many competitive examinations.


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the Bank Examination Preparation.

Where is the headquarters of IBRD situated?

Ans. IBRD is headquartered in Washington D.C, United States.

Who is the current President of the World Bank?

Ans. The World Bank is headed by David Malpass who is the 13th President of the institution.