Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Development and Spread of Extremism Lesson 4
In this Lessorn Impact of Extremism
A violent extremist movement has 2 phases: Organizational Phase- when the rebels seek to build a popular support base, they do not indulge in any violence * . . The nature of their activities is peaceful and political . Since there is no violence, the authorities fail to comprehend the situation and the police make no attempt to curb the activities of the Maoists After the rebels gain firm foothold in their areas of operation during the organizational phase, the movement enters the guerrilla warfare phase. *
Guerilla Warfare Phase- In this phase, they target police patrols and police stations, target kill specific individuals who they brand as police informants They seek to create political vacuum by asking political leaders to resign from their posts and would not hesitate to kill those who do not fall in line. As a result, fearing for their lives, politicians at various levels move away from countryside to towns and cities, or lie low in their own villages. . . . . The political space vacated by these people is filled by the rebels by forming . Gram Rajya committees and Gram Raksha committees. This forms a parallel administration
The civil administration remains a mute spectator during these developments and the rebels gain total control over these areas. The police adopt a shot-gun approach and do not mind causing collateral damage while targeting Maoist squads. This causes further alienation from the people and the rebels become stronger. . . .
Violation of Human Rights- Rebels have been committing chilling massacres on the security forces and murdering unarmed civilians in cold blood, whom they brand as police informers. There have been reports that Naxals physically torture police informers by gruesome acts like beheading, hacking of limbs and even gouging out of eyes. In two major attacks in 2017, Naxal rebels ambushed and killed a total of 36 CRPF personnel and injured many more. In the deadly attack of 2013, 25 leaders, including a state minister, were killed. This also provides government the excuse to use brute force and military action on these citizens, and justify violent politics. . . . . .
Naxalites have always attempted to disrupt elections thereby preventing masses from exercising their fundamental Right to vote. The Maoist extortion business is estimated to be around a whopping 2000 crores All contractors have to pay 5-10% of the project cost to Naxalites as protection money'. . . 'protection money There have been repeated incidents of Naxalites blowing up schools, trains and rail lines apart from government buildings which harm the common masses It has eroded the profitability of tourism in states like Jammu and Kashmir, creating an image of fear and disturbance. .
It has escalated the defence expenditure of the Government which could have been instead spent on developmental activities. . . t acts as a dampener on the investment climate of the State, prohibits foreign and domestic investment due to instability Threat to sovereignty - An IB report reveals that Chinese intelligence units have been training, arming and funding the Maoists to help them wage a violent war against India. The report reveals that China has been organising the Maoists and militant groups from Jammu and Kashmir and the North East region into a single war-fighting machine to hit Indian states. . .
Often villages and adivasis are caught in the cross firing between the security forces and the Naxals causing loss of life and property The Naxalites sure did bring about some equity and relief for the marginalized category from the rampant feudal activities But that has come at a huge cost for the entire nation in terms of both economic development and safety of the citizens. Moreover this movement no longer holds its people-centric approach. It has more or less become a terrorist group with only one principle which is to seize power. . * * .
POSITIVE IMPACTS It can draw the attention of one's opponent, the general public, or the international community to one side's hidden concerns. It can also send a message of desperation of a deep and commitment to a cause It may motivate a more powerful foe to consider negotiating, or third parties to intervene Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 placed the reserved forests of the entire country in the hands of the Centre. . . . No portion of these reserves could be utilized without the prior permission of the government.
. The Minimum Wages Act remains an act on paper for most of the rural India. It is reported that the Naxalites have ensured payment of decent wages to the labourers. A famous example of this is the increase in payment rates secured by the Naxalites for tendu leaf pickers used for rolling beedis. The pressure exerted by the Naxalite movement has had some effect in ensuring proper attendance of teachers, doctors etc. in Andhra Pradesh and Chattisgarh The Naxalite movement has on certain occasions exerted pressure for its improvement of physical infrastructure like roads, school buildings etc *