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Development and Spread of Extremism Lesson 3
In this Lesson o Causes of Extremism
Historical factors Maladministration of Forests is one of the main reasons for the spread of Naxalism It started with the British government. The monopolization of the forest started with the enactment of various forest laws. . . . . It led to an influx of a new class like moneylenders. The administrative machinery became more exploitative and extortionate
Geographical Reasons . Naxalism thrives in areas covered with forests. It helps them fight against the police and the army by waging Guerrilla warfare. North -east is hilly, inaccessible and hence feels isolated from the mainland, ad its difficult to create infrastructure there * .
Political Factors Formation of the first United Front Government in West Bengal (1967) with CPI (M) as its main constituent. The movement received increasing political mileage and media attention The movement was influenced with the political ideology of Chinese Communist Party and Mao Zedong. It promised emancipation of the exploited segments from the clutches of the exploiter classes through the barrel of gun. . . *
The indifference of the political system towards the problems of the tribals led to the Naxalbari uprising. Inability of the legitimate political authority in India to provide avenues for structural uplift to the deprived sections of society. There are some areas where there is absolutely no civil administration or police The Naxalites operate in a vacuum created by administrative and political machinery * . . .
Economic factors . Poverty and economic inequality and underdevelopment in the naxal areas . Encroachment of forest lands by contractor-politician nexus Entry of mining companies in Tribal lands and forests, posing threat to the livelihood of the tribals. Disruption of age old tribal-forest relationship, violation of traditional land rights, land acquisition without proper compensation and rehabilitation The half-hearted implementation of land reforms, absence of proper implementation of survey and settlement. This further damaged the agriculture production and the rural economy .
Unholy nexus between the illegal mining industry in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand acts as a source of revenue for the Naxal leadership and cadres. Maoists keep the SEZ on top of their agenda. SEZ, according to them is a treacherous policy to snatch the land of the people and hand it over to MNCs, leading to induced displacement The tribal villages have no medical facilities, no schools, low literacy. * .
Absence of proper industrialization has failed to generate employment for rural people leading to dissatisfaction with the government. Globalization accused to have led many MNCs making inroads in tribal areas owing to their resource richness. The benefits of the resource exploitation are not passed on the tribals. * . .
Governance deficit Complete absence of government machinery in remote areas, poor implementation of laws Mismanagement and corruption The issues of food security and poverty has led to Naxalism making inroads in Orissa and other states Tribal policies were not able to stop the process of the tribal alienation and their displacement caused by large projects The government policies have failed to stem the growing inter and intra regional disparities. * . .
The Naxalite cadre base is formed of tribals, lower castes from India's poorest communities, form the Naxals' cadre base. Naxalite movement is supported by the grievances of the tribals and the dalits. The educated middle class youths have been the largest supporters of the Naxalite movement. Universities have turned up to be a pitch for the creation of radical ideologies. . * *