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Development and Spread of Extremism Lesson2
In this Lesson History of Left Wing Extremism in India
The Naxal movement originated in the Naxalbari incident that happened on 25 May 1967 at Naxalbari, located in Siliguri, Darjeeling district of West Bengal. A tribal youth, who had a judicial order to plough his land, was attacked by the goons of local landlords. The tribals retaliated and refused to give the landowner any share of their . . produce and lifted the entire stock from his granary. It led to a violent movement. The state government ordered police action against the rebellions. This uprising was crushed in 2 months but it gained tremendous support from the communist revolutionaries such as Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. . .
History of Communist Party of India (CPI) 1920s- founded with an objective to introduce communist revolution in India 1950s- mobilised workers and gained control of All India Trade Union Congress 1946- participated in the Telangana Uprising 1946-47- CPI's peasant front Kisan Sabha organized Tebhaga Movement in West Bengal . . .
Tebhaga movement demanded to reduce the share given to landlords to one third. 1964- Major split in CPI on whether to support India (pro-soviet) or China. Parent CPl remained Pro-Soviet while CPI(Marxist) emerges as a Pro-Chinese faction. 1967- the CPI(M) decides to contest elections in West Bengal. . . e . It wins elections and forms a coalition called United Front formed government . This front had leaders from CPI, CPI(M), Bangla Congress and 8 other parties.
Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal lead the peasants in the Naxalbari incidert 1968 and 1969- The Naxalbari movement re-emerges in a larger form in the parts of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal respectively. . The guerrillas seize property, kill landlords and engaged in acts of terror, property was redistributed and peasants debts were cancelled. 1970- The guerrillas are met with swift response and are crushed by the State 1970- CPI (Marxist) split and Charu Mazumdar forms the CPI (Marxist-Leninist) or CPI (ML). * .
First Phase- Numerous Splits . 1972- Mazumdar was arrested and dies in custody. Naxal movement fades away but became the inspiration for those who were interested in achieving social justice through violence. CPI (ML) once again split into various factions. 1960s-80s- the Naxal Movement saw numerous splits Despite the splits, the movement attracted many youths especially the students The movement had ideological, moral, financial and intellectual backing from China. . The Naxal movement spread to several states.
Second Phase - Merger and Consolidation 1980-Kondapalli seetharamaiah separated from the CPI (ML) and finds the People's War Group (PWG) 1992-Muppala Lakshmana Rao becomes the head of the PWG. 2003- Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCl) is formed after merging various Naxalite factions of the country 2004- the People's war Group and MCCl merged resulting in the formation of the largest and most lethal Naxalite outfit in India known as CPI (Maoist). * .
2014- the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Naxalbari also merges into the CPl (Maoist). Currently, this is party has been declared as Terrorist Organization under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. Maoist problem is spread across these 7 states-Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh * .