Agriculture And It's Allied Sectors-Lesson1 By-: Manavdeep Singh Sandhu
About me -Production Engineering from PEC University of Technology Appeared for CSE Mains in 2013, 2014. Hobbies-Travelling and Youtube. Follow me at https://unacademy.in/user/manavsandhu USPA
Importance - Forms the backbone of Indian economy. Employs about 50% of the population. Contributes around 18% of GDP
Characteristics of Agriculture in India Mostly intensive, subsistent, dryland( 75 cms) and rainfed. Small and fragmented land holding (Over 70% of land holdings are less than 1 hectare) Enormous pressure of population. High dependence on seasonal rainfall which is variable and erratic. Mainly cereal crops are grown. Low productivity due to primitive technology, lack of agri. Infrastructure facilities like road connectivity. storage facilities and marketing.
Cropping Seasons in India Kharif season Starts with onset of monsoons and continues till the beginning of winter. Major crops: Rice, maize, jowar, bajra, cotton, sesamum, groundnut, and pulses such as moong and urad etc. Rabi Season Starts with beginning of winter and continues till the end of winter.Crops are harvested in early summer. Major crops: Wheat, barley, jowar, gram, oil seed, such as linseed, rapeseed and mustard. - Zaid Season Summer cropping season in which crops like rice, maize, groundnut, vegetables and fruits are grown.
Types of crops Food crops:- Rice, wheat, maize, millets, jowar, bajra, ragi, pulses etc. - Cash crops Seasonal cash crops cultivated on large farms, less labour, quick returns, comparatively less profit. Like cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, oilseeds, groundnut, sesamum, mustard etc. Plantation crops single perennial crop purely meant for sale grown in large estate, requires cheap labour, returns after 5-6 years, but more profit. Like tea, coffee, spices, cardamom, chillies, ginger.
Rice- Kharif Mean monthly temp-24C Avg annual rainfall required- 150 cms Dominant crop in areas over 200 cms of rainfall. Flooded fields 10-12 deep water. Fields must be level, have mud walls to retain water. - Fields must be level, have mud wal to retain water - Areas- Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern Rajasthan. In W.B and southern states its cultivated twice or even thrice!
Wheat- Rabi Mid latitude/temperate zone crop. Winter temp 10-15C & summer 21-26C -Rainfall 75 cms. Areas- Indo-Gangetic plain, Malwa plateau:- Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, U.P., M.P.
Maize- Rainfed Kharif Crop Rainfall- 50-100cms and cannot be grown in areas >100cms of rainfall(semi- arid climatic conditions) Temp- 21-27C Frost is injurious to maize. Areas- M.P., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan and U.P
Barley aka "Jau"- Rainfed Rabi Crop - Temperature 10-15C for about 3 months and does not tolerate high heat also very sensitive to frost. Good drought tolerance. Summer crop in temperate regions and winter crop in tropical regions. Rainfall-75-100 cms. Areas- Rajasthan, U.P., M.P., Haryana, Punjab, W.B and J&K.