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INDIA'S INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES PART II Presented By ROMAN SAINI
Armed Ethnic Insurgencies in Northeast India Mizoram The State with its history of violent insurgency and its subsequent return to peace is an example to all other violence affected States. . .Following an 'accord' between the Union Government and the Mizo National Front in 1986 and conferment of statehood the next year, complete peace and harmony prevails in Mizoram. .The State is recognised as having done a commendable job in the implementation of development programmes and making agriculture remunerative. The only potential areas of conflict are the growing income and assets disparities in a largely egalitarian society and the dissatisfaction of the three small non-Mizo District Councils with the State Government, on account of issues pertaining to identity and reservation as ST. .
Armed Ethnic Insurgencies in Northeast India Tripura In spite of the 1988 Accord with the Tripura National Volunteer Force, Tripura is also faced with a low level of insurgency and keeps regressing into ethnic violence from time to time .Due to a large influx of illegal immigrants since 1947, the local tribals in the State have been reduced to a minority The resultant clash of interest between the tribals and the immigrants is the root cause of insurgency in the state. The most worrisome aspect of the insurgency is the process of ethnic cleansing undertaken by the People's Front of Tripura that has been targeting Bengalis and forcing them to flee the State. .
Armed Ethnic Insurgencies in Northeast India Meghalaya The State is fortunately free from violence of the intensity that prevails in many other parts of the region. Except violence against 'outsiders' particularly the Bengali speaking linguistic minority, there have been no major problems in the State. Sikkim The State has not only done well in the sphere of development through decentralised planning but the constitutional mandate of striking a balance between the various ethnic groups (mainly the Lepchas, Bhutiyas and Nepalis) has also prevented emergence of major conflicts.
Factors Responsible for Insurgencies In The North-East Historical . The introduction of the Inner Line Regulation (1873) and the recommendations of the Simon Commission (1927) had far reaching effects on future relations between the hill people(tribal) and plainsmen. The British Inner line Policy which separated tribal people who lived in hills separated from the plains. This made tribal people to think that they are not identical with rest of the country . The segregation of the people brought about racial awareness which acted as a major catalyst for future insurgency movement. The introduction of Christianity was the most important impact the British had upon the hill tribes especially in Mizoram, Nagaland, the tribal belt of Manipur and Meghalaya.
Factors Responsible for Insurgencies In The North-East Political/Administrative Most insurgent groups garner popular support for their violent activities by citing a political cause, significantly important to the target population. The indigenous people of Assam feel that in future the illegal migrants will become the majority population and they will lose political power. In Manipur, almost every party is busy in cultivating underground insurgent groups to strengthen their bargaining position with the Central government. . . In Tripura, the Communist Party of India (CPI) under the leadership of Dashrath Dev is still criticized for sowing the seeds of insurgency during 1948-51 Arbitrary division of tribes in different States, in past, which could be a reason to an extent, but cannot be seen as the sole reason. Failure of Sixth Schedule Councils and favour to major ethnic groups therein, sidelining smaller tribes. .
Factors Responsible for Insurgencies In The North-East Terrain of the region The terrain in this region is exceptionally suitable for insurgency .The terrain is densely forested and weather conditions are extreme. ' Dense forests provide convenient hiding places to mount ambushes on the moving convoys of the security forces. Large parts of the interior areas have little or no police presence. Given the Northeast terrain is hilly and not easily accessible because of incessant rain during the months of April to July, an insurgent group once established, takes years to be detected and countered by the state.